Citations in the text of your essay / report / dissertation, etc:
APA uses the author-date method of citation (The last name of the author and the date of publication).
When providing in-text citations for summaries and paraphrases give the author and year.
When quoting particular words or sentences and when summarising / paraphrasing a particular passage, include the specific page as well.
When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words, incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks. If a direct quote is more than 40 words, make the quotation a free-standing indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks.
Citing work by one author:
1 In one developmental study (Smith, 1990), children learned... OR
2 In the study by Smith (1990), primary school children... OR
Works by multiple authors:
When a work has 2 authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text.
When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs and then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al.
First citation: Masserton, Slonowski, and Slowinski (1989) state that...
Subsequent citations: Masserton et al. (1989) state that...
For 6 or more authors, cite only the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year.
*** The word “and” is used between the authors’ names only when used as part of the sentence. In the reference list and the in-text citation parentheses the ampersand “&” is used:
...and it was that event that started the revolution (Smith & Burton, 2001).
Works (including online sources) by no identified author:
When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title).
Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or web page.
Italicise the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report:
The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles”, 2009).
The brochure argues for homeschooling (Education Reform, 2007).
Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.
Two or more works in the same parenthetical citation:
Citations of two or more works in the same parentheses should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (i.e., alphabetically, then chronologically).
Several studies (Jones & Powell, 1993; Peterson, 1995, 1998; Smith, 1990) suggest that...
When you refer to authors who have been cited in the material you are reading, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.
Jones and Oakland (2002) studied the relationship between motivation and upbringing (as cited in Thomson & Boissir, 2010).
In the list of references provide an entry for the material written by Thomson and Boissir.
List of references
Start the reference list on a new page, with the word References centred at the top of the page
The reference list should be listed alphabetically by author and then by year
Book titles and journal titles should be in italics
The date is the year of publication, not printing
For a book, the edition is only mentioned if it is other than the first
The place of publication is the town or city, not the country
Do not put a full stop after a website URL
Be consistent in format, layout, type-face and punctuation
Abbreviations in the reference list
chapter chap. edition ed. editor or editors Ed. or Eds. no date n.d. page p. / pages pp. revised edition Rev. ed. second edition 2nd ed. volume Vol. (as in Vol. 4) / volumes vols. (as in 3 vols.)
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The guide to everything and then some more stuff.
New York, NY: Macmillan.
Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing brain-compatible learning. (3rd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Chapter of a book:
Bergquist, J. M. (1992). German Americans. In J. D. Buenker &