Between 1000 & 1300, the feudal system declined as agriculture, trade, finance, towns & universities developed.
An Agricultural Economy Developed
• Population growth in the 10th century created a demand for more land. New lands were cleared.
• Improved agricultural techniques increased productivity.
• Three-field system – crop rotation
• more abundant harvests
• Diversity of domesticated animals Agricultural Technology Improved
• Old technologies improved
• Expansion of watermills
• Steel plows
• New technologies
• Horseshoe & horse collar
• New crops like wheat, rice, spinach, artichokes, eggplant, lemons, limes, oranges & melon
• Increased the amount of land cultivators could work & the speed at which work was performed New Technologies Spread
• News traveled quickly throughout Europe in books on household economics & agricultural methods. Written in vernacular languages for lay readers, books published innovations, which led to increased agricultural productivity.
• Vernacular: the everyday speech of the people
• Lay: those who are not members of the clergy
The Population Expanded
The increased food supply fuelled a demographic explosion.
Planned & Organic
• Population growth rise of larger organic & planned towns • Planned (Grid, Concentric) &
• Concentric: having a common center Right: example of concentric circles
• Commercial Revolution: expansion of trade & business that transformed European economies during the 16 th
& 17th century
• New joint business practices