Describe Research Methods

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11. Describe Research Methods of each type

• Data Collection - Common data collection methods are interview, focus groups, observation and examination of written text. In quantitative studies interviews are used to gather information of responses to surveys and questionnaires, while being semi-structured or open- ended in qualitative studies. The objective is to gain insight into experiences described by participants. Focus Groups facilitate a candid environment to gather unrestricted information from participants about a specific topic, who may feel more comfortable to share their information in a group setting. Groups are held by a moderator or facilitator and are usually recorded and observed. Observation is generally used in qualitative studies to carefully observe participants to answer questions. Video recording or taking field notes are some strategies used in observation. Literature sources are credible sources of qualitative information, test provided by participants, records of procedures, books. Articles, transcriptions of recorded interviews and other sources of literature are used for text analysis to obtain data. (Burns & Grove, 2011, pp. 85 - 90)

• Data Management – Some Data Management methods are: Transcribing Interviews, or to transcribe an audio interview verbatim into text (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 93); Immersion in the data, which is recordings from the researcher during data collection (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 94); Data Reduction, which is to limit the amount of data so that the researcher can more efficiently analyze them. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 94)
• Data Analysis - Coding is a way of Data Analysis which is to break down data into sub-parts and assign a label to that subpart. A code is an abbreviation or symbols that represents a word or phrase in the data. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 94) Another way of Data Analysis is reflection or critically analyzing the data sometimes leads to bracketing which is the researcher “laying aside” what they already know. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 96) Identifying Themes is another method of Data Analysis, it is developed from cods and requires the researchers to be able to connect themes with data. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 96) Analysis of Focus Groups or the analysis of group dynamics in a focus group, is also a way of analyzing data that often includes situational and thematic analysis (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 96). Lastly, Interpretation generally describes the meaning of the study’s findings and classifies themes. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 97)

• Selection of participants – Participants are selected depending on their criteria matching the needs of the study and are asked to consent to being involved in the study. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 84) In Simple Random Sampling, subjects are selected at random from the population; this increases the likeness of the findings to be accurate to the target population. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 299) Stratified Random Sampling is used when the researcher is aware of the variables and insures all identifiable variables are adequately represented. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 301)Systematic Sampling is when a list of all participants are available and participants are selected at an interval of the population size divided by the desired sample size. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 303) Cluster Sampling is a randomized sample from all the states, cities, institutions or organization where the desired population can be linked (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 302) Convenience Sampling is a weak approach which is just using a sample size that is convenient to the researcher. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 305) Quota Sampling uses convenience sampling to make sure to include minorities that are likely to be underrepresented therefore is less bias than convenience sampling. (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 307)

• Relationship with participants – Relationship of researches with patients depends on the type of study being conducted. Phenomenology and