What is the difference between the brain and the mind?
-functions of various structures
-neurotransmitters, hormones etc.
-touched and studied
-most important part of the body
-how your mental process works
-conscious vs. unconscious
-where your memories are kept
Psychodynamic (3 psychologists)
Who was Freud and what did he do?
-he was the founder of psychoanalysis
-well known for his concept of the human consciousness as consisting of three distinct parts: the id, the ego and the superego.
-ego represents the rational part of the mind and operates the reality principle.
-id the instinctual aspect of the mind which is run by the pleasure principle.
-superego is the moral centre of the mind as it acts as the minds conscience.
-he believed that human personality results from the ego’s efforts to resolve these conflicts.
Who was Karen Horney and what did she do?
-countered assumption that women have a weak superego and suffer “sexual favours”
-she focussed on the feminist perspective
-her theories came from personal experiences
-disagreed with Freud’s theory
Who was Carl Jung and what did he do?
-found analytic psychology to understand motivation based on the conscious and unconscious mind -his theories came from personal experiences
-disagreed with Freud’s theory
Behavioural (2 psychologists)
Who was Ivan Pavlov and what did he do?
-started by studying the digestive system
-experiment and research with dogs
Who was B.F. Skinner and what did he do?
-experimented on rats
-theory was known as the operant theory (Ex. Big Bang clip)
-Experiment: rat was rewarded with food each time it pressed the bar.
Humanistic (3 psychologists)
Who was Abraham Maslow and what did he do?
-studied “self actualizing” people and their experiences
-Hierarchy of needs explains the theory before higher needs become important
-did not support his theory by science
-Masculism (theory based on men)
Who was Victor Frankl and what did he do?
-form of therapy was known as logo therapy -he believed everyone has an inborn inclination to seek the meaning of his or her existence
Who was Carl Rogers and what did he do?
-developed client centred therapy
-clients express feelings or thoughts without fear of judgment
-focusses on the present and the future
-more value to conscious
Cognitive (2 psychologists)
Who was Albert Bandura and what did he do?
-how people generate different responses
-social cognitive theory
-perspective on personality that takes a person’s motivation, environment and behaviour into account -can be used to predict and change individual and group behaviour
-believed people learnt behaviour from watching and imitating
-Experiment: Bobo Doll - children watched a video of an adult acting aggressively toward the doll and then the children interacted with the doll and some were aggressive and others were non aggressive
Who was Elizabeth Loftus and what did she do?
-studied false memories and the flexibility and reliability of repressed memories
-she believed that repressed memories rarely exist but can be created
-memory is changeable
-memories suggest that there is some truth behind false memories
-Experiment: participants read several stories of real events that had occurred during their childhood as well as one fiction story and the results were that less than 30% of the people remembered at least part of the false event
Why do we forget memories?
-they are to traumatizing
How do psychologists define human-ness? (4 ways)
1.our cognitive process (Ability to reason and to solve problems at high levels)
2.our motivation of/ for behaviour
3.communication in a highly effective manner
Psychology is divided into a number of school of thought