Essay about 1120213982 2004 Senior Science Assessme

Submitted By BenjaminMinor97
Words: 2069
Pages: 9

Senior Science
Medical Technology- Bionics

Non-invasive medical techniques
Non-invasive medical procedures are those that do not involve tools that break or invade the skin or physically enter the body cavity. Non-invasive techniques are used to recognize injury and disease. Examples of non-invasive techniques include x-rays, MRI, Holter monitor, ultrasounds and thermography.

Advantages
Disadvantages
No risk of infection
No risk of loss of blood
No hospital stays, more beds
Less cost due to no hospital stay and sterilisations
No pain or discomfort
Radiation from x-rays can be damaging and may cause cancer if overexposed
Resolution and angles of imaging can be limited and may reduce the reliability of results

Minimally invasive medical techniques
Minimally invasive techniques are those that are performed by making the smallest convenient opening in the skin using specialised techniques, to repair injuries, problems or remove tissue, a small camera is also inserted into the hole so the surgeon can see what to do. Minimally invasive techniques attempt to reduce the trauma to a patient throughout treatment. These are usually small incisions measuring a few centimetres or less. Minimally invasive surgery can be performed both on an “inpatient” (stay in the hospital) and “outpatient” (go home the same day) basis.

Advantages
Disadvantages
Less risk of infection than with open surgery
Smaller incisions
Less pain after the operation
Less complications with healing wounds
Not as much scarring
Quicker recovery time
Reduction of blood loss
Reduced health care costs
Eliminates potential complications
Less time and cost for hospitals than for longer stays with open surgery
Earlier return to work
Minimally Invasive operations may take longer to perform in some situations
Sometimes a doctor may need to change from a minimally invasive to an open surgery if complications occur

Disadvantages for the surgeon can include:
Restricted vision
Difficulty in handling the instruments
Restricted mobility and
Problems with hand-eye coordination
X-Rays
German Physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays in 1895 and this revolutionary discovery meant that we could see inside a human body without the need for cutting it open. Their high energy means that X-rays can pass through skin and muscle. Dense tissues like cartilage and bone absorb them. This produces an image on photographic film, which can show damage that is otherwise hidden to the naked eye. Not only can damage to bones and joints be detected but also things such as cancers and tuberculosis as they are more dense and x-rays will not pass through them, they will show up as shadow areas or masses of solid material where there shouldn’t be.

This chest x-ray shows a shadow over the left lung, which was later diagnosed as lung cancer http://www.emedicinehealth.com/images/4453/4453-13251-15405-20689.jpg This is an x-ray which shows a broken humorous www.campbell.amedd.army.mil/periop/ortho.shtml Advantages
Disadvantages
No risk of infection as skin is not penetrated
Reduction of need for invasive surgery and techniques
Can detect problems with bones and joints as well as detecting breast cancer and tuberculosis
X-rays have a higher resolution than ultra sounds
No blood loss
The 2 dimensional nature of x-rays means many images may b needed from different angles
As x-rays are electro magnetic rays over exposure can be harmful and possibly cause cancer and therefore use is limited

Ultrasounds
Ultrasounds allow imaging of body parts using high-pitched sound waves. They use these sound waves that are above the range of human hearing to create an image of organs within the body. Sound waves are projected onto tissues and are reflected off internal body structures and back to the ultrasound machine. The reflected sound waves are analysed by computer and turned into pictures. Ultrasounds can measure foetal size, the amount of amniotic fluid, estimate foetal gestational age,…