The final examination will have two sections, one short answer and one essay.
You should know the following theories and terms
1) Theory: A theory is a general statement that explains causes and effect of classes of phenomenon
- Result for accepted hypothesis
- Theories generate hypothesis we can make predictions on
-Drive investigation but no experimental control
2) Hypotheses: States a casual relationship between two things. Needs to be able to be tested and proven wrong or right.
Ask questions do background checkconstructs hypothesis
Test with experimentanalyze resultsdraw conclusionsHypothesis is false or partially trueThink & try again. Hypothesis is trueReport results
3) Evidence: not an explanation of a single example. It’s a trend. Theory+evidence= Thinking about IR. Evidence is philosophy history problem its idiosyncratic (happens once) good is background. Philosophy: incorporates classical and modern philosophy
(what supports or goes against your theory/hypothesis)
4) Idealism: Core theoretical assumption: Human nature is fundamentally good Humans are good outside of alliance/power system and tyranny. Circumstances not people cause problem
Core hypothesis: Progress in human affairs is possible through the nurturing of reason and empathy (If A then B)
Liberal pacifism, Liberal imperialism, Liberal internationalism
Progress is blocked by bad arrangements, institutions (bad ones, hitler) and values (domestic and international)
Hate secret alliances, mobilization schedules, dictators and standing armies.
National affairs should be arranged around global legalistic and ethical intstitutions
Like democracy, coorporeation and capitalism
Back to notebook for the rest
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Stuart Mill, John Locke 14 points
5) Realism: -Core theoretical assumptions: Human nature is fundamentally bad. People are driven by desire to dominate others states will perpetually fight each other because of that. Leads to conflict groups (states) and perpetually compete for power.
-People form into groups (nation) to protect each other
-Core Hypotheses: International politics is a war of all against all transfer of human nature to nation states Human nature + nation states=constant conflict
-States must acquire power to protect themselves & promote their interest because IR is anarchic (no central power). Good can only occur when you promote your interest (trading, economic interest)
Allies are unreliable. Treaties & international organizations are irrelevant. The most powerful makes the rules
Progress is a pipe dream. Conflict is ineradicable. Relative stability is the best one can hope for
Strategies: Deterrence (make enemy think that they will be huge consequences if in conflict with me) states of = powerdifficult for conflict, equal playing fields for states. Balance of power, only way for stability unbalance of power kills deterrence and opens door for conflict. ?? Who likes balance of power: Idealists or realists ?
BOOK: Balance of power: Divide & conquer alliances to weaken them or form them to become stronger, compensation, Armaments: Arm race to be sure you have enough weapons to defend yourself and threaten and fight others. Holder of the balance (person who keeps one group from dominating, short term benefits)
Theory tested empirically. Political action doesn’t matter if not beneficial. States and interest defined by power not military power but political power. Good theory but doesn’t work in practice.
Sources of political power (how govt. get loyalty from people): Expectation of benefit (how its created) Fear of disadvantage (reason) Respect for institution (the way applied)
Old: Machiavelli, Hobbes, Thucydides. Contemporary: Hans Morgenthau, E.H. Carr, Henry Kissinger.
6) Marxism: Class based, capitalist vs labor, world system theory, dependency theory.current system is based on the……