15701 Harvard Style WebFINAL Essay

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Reference with confidence: The Harvard style

Reference with confidence

Harvard style
(2012 Edition)

As used in:
Biochemistry (as well as Vancouver)
Biology (as well as Vancouver)
Health Sciences
Hull York Medical School (as well as Vancouver)
Language and Linguistic Science
Philosophy (as well as MLA)
Social Policy and Social Work
Theatre, Film and Television
York Management School



Using this guide________________________________________ 3

Why reference?_________________________________________ 3

Frequently asked questions________________________________ 4

Further resources_______________________________________ 7

Examples of the Harvard Style______________________________ 8

Reference with confidence: The Harvard style

Using this Guide
This guide is intended to help you understand how to use source material effectively in this referencing style. It outlines the general features of the style, but it is important that you follow your department’s specific guidelines as there are some different interpretations and requirements that might be specifically required within your discipline. The guide has been compiled using EndNote X5 and the ‘UoY – Harvard’ output style. It also uses Colin Neville’s ‘The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd ed.’, which is seen as a guiding authority on the format for Harvard in-text citation and referencing. The examples given are also consistent with the format of the larger set of example Harvard citations and references available at www.york.ac.uk/integrity.

Why Reference?
Citing and referencing source material is a crucial aspect of academic writing. You will probably be aware that plagiarism (using someone else’s work as though it were your own) is a serious form of academic misconduct and it must be avoided at all costs. Referencing accurately and consistently is an important part of ensuring the distinction is clear between your words and the words and ideas of others in your assignments.
In-text citation is included in the body of your text and is there to directly show the reader where an idea, piece of information, and/ or a quotation is from. The reader will then be able to match the source cited in the text to the full reference given in your bibliography/ reference list where full details of the publication are presented.
Citing of source materials within your assignment is useful and beneficial to supporting your argument. However, be selective. Do not just use as many references as you can in a bid to impress the marker that you’ve read a massive amount. Your references should be relevant and are an integral part of your argument, that is you discuss or critique them in your writing.
For example, if you:
ŸŸ Include data from your reading (eg tables, statistics, diagrams)
ŸŸ Describe or discuss a theory, model or practice from a particular writer
ŸŸ Want to add credibility to your argument by bringing in the ideas of another writer – for or against
ŸŸ Provide quotations or definitions in your essay;
ŸŸ Paraphrase or summarise information which is not common knowledge.


cite the source 3


Reference with confidence: The Harvard style

Frequently asked questions uuWhat is the Harvard Style?
The Harvard style originated at Harvard
University, but has been much adapted by individual institutions. There is no set manual or formatting rules for Harvard as there is some other referencing systems. Harvard is a style for citing sources by giving the name of the author and the date of their publication in the text of a piece of writing, within ( ), for example (Smith, 2012). A reference list of full bibliographic details is then given at the end, with sources listed in alphabetical order by author. uuHow do I format in-text citations?
The Harvard style requires you to include the name of the author and the date of their publication in ( ) and, when appropriate, to add a page number.