Objectives, nature and features of an integrated transport policy.
You need to be able to:
Define and give examples of integrated transport policies
Analyse systems for encouraging inter – modal switch
Evaluate the extent to which the UK has an integrated transport system
Integrated transport occurs when where passengers and freight can easily switch between different modes of transport over a given journey. Government policies that encourage different modes of transport work more effectively and efficiently together should lead to a more integrated transport system.
The benefits of integrated transport systems: reduces journey times and lowers the cost of travelling for households and firms switches demand from private transport to mass public transport so there will be less negative externalities
Examples of Integrated Transport
Any policy that makes it easy or encourages people to switch between modes of transport can be considered integrated transport policies.
Through ticketing (Oyster)
Park and ride schemes
The building new transport infrastructure ‘hubs’ to bring together train, bus, car, tram and bicycles (London Bridge station)
The creation of a single transport authority within local authority areas in order to co-ordinate such policies (TFL)
Combining road user charging and subsidies for public transport
Making it easier to switch between rail and buses (i.e. buses don’t depart until the train arrives)
Relevant Diagrams to support analysis:
Road user charging to show how this will reduce demand for car use
Subsidies diagram showing an increase in supply of public transport
Demand and supply diagram showing a park and ride scheme will increase demand for public transport
Has the UK got an Integrated Transport System?
Park and Ride Schemes
While most schemes are hailed as a success, and see additions to site/spaces or increase in vehicle size over time, some encounter lower than anticipated passenger numbers and need to be withdrawn/modified. In Gloucester, a two route scheme existing in 2003 was required to be scaled back and rationalised into one through service after passenger numbers fell, putting one service in doubt. In February 2008 a scheme in Kidderminster was closed down despite objections, as it was costing £1,000 a week to operate, although it was later said the scheme had been introduced as a temporary measure while building works occurred, that was allowed to continue permanently.
While the Oyster Card scheme has been very successful in London, use of through ticketing outside of the capital has not been so successful, partially due to the privatisation of many transport companies.
Investment in Transport Infrastructure
Many new schemes are going ahead, including HS2 and Crossrail. The issue of a new runway in the South East of England creates many issues for an integrated