2. Importance of the Holy Land: sacred for Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For Jews it is the promised homeland. For Christians this is where Jesus lived his life. For Islam Jerusalem is the holiest place on earth Where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
3. Byzantine Emperor: Alexius I Comnenus
4. Roman Catholic Pope: Most powerful figure in Europe.
a. ______all___ wanted forgiveness of sins & access to Christian holy sites.
b. ___pope______ wanted to unify Christianity
c. _____knights____ wanted adventure and treasure
d. _____kings____ wanted more land
e. ______merchants___ wanted to expand markets & acquire new products
f. _____peasants____wanted freedom from service on the manor
6. Peter the Hermit: organized peasants and stragglers to go out and preach the word of God
7. The Crusades
a. First Crusade 1096-1099
The first Crusaders, led by ___Godfrey of bouillon ______________________________, marched from Constantinople through lands held by the Seljuk Turks to Antioch. ___constantinople_______, _____Antioch______, and ____Jerusalem_______ were captured by the Crusaders.
The _____Edessa__________ and __the kingdom____________ were set up.
Most of the Crusaders who had survived _and __returned home___________________.
b. Second Crusade 1147-1149
Enthusiasm for the Crusades was at an __all time high________________.
Holy Orders of knights rode and fought, such as_____Teutonic knights___________, __Knights Hospitaller____________, and _____Knights Templar___________.
However, crusader attacks were poorly organized, resulting in _____________.
Similar to the First Crusade, many Crusaders ____returned home______________.
c. Third Crusade 1187-1192
Saladin: thought that the Christian armies were infidels ad needed to be evicted
Richard the Lionheart (King Richard I): remained to lead the Christian armies d. Fourth Crusade 1202-1204
This Crusade was started by the Pope, mostly to ____increase________ the authority of the Church. The major accomplishment of this Crusade proved to be ____weakening ___________ the Byzantines enough that they could no longer hold off ______Muslim expantion______________.
e. Final Crusades 1217-1272
Crusades #5-8 were ____disorganized_____________ military efforts with _____limited support___________.
8. Overall Outcome of The Crusades:
They all Failed
9. Children’s Crusade: A much debated event…