Using material from Item A and elsewhere, asses the view that social class differences in educational achievement are the result of school processes such as labelling. It is thought that working class children are treated differently in school to what middle class children are, this is because teachers tend to favour students that are going to do well in their studies and due to cultural and material deprivation working class children tend to under achieve. Teachers tend to label students very quickly after meeting them, these labels can include being called; bright, talented, dumb and stupid. These labels are not obtained through their own ability or attitude but through their class background, working positively in middle class children's favour, but not quite in working class children. Internationalists such as Becker carried out a study in 1971, which entailed him interviewing 60 Chicago high school teachers and finding out that they judged their pupils according to if they fitted in to their image of the "ideal pupil." Students with a middle class back ground were more closely fitted to the image of an ideal pupil and working class students were further away from them. Factors such as their work, conduct and appearance where taken into consideration but they were not the overriding factor of whether they were the perfect pupil or not. Labelling does not only occur in secondary schools, it starts as early on as Primary school, for example Ray Rist done a study of an American Kindergarten and found that back ground information on the child was what put the children into their separate groups at different tables. The fast learners where called the "tigers" who where middle classed neat looking children. Then there were the "cardinals" and the "clowns;" more specifically they were working class and were put on work of a lower grade to the "tigers." This hindered the children as the "tigers" were sat closer to the teachers desk in order for the to get praised for their work completed, this was an encouragement for them to keep up the good work. Whereas, the "cardinals" and the "clowns" were put onto learning things that were of a less high level, just due to their background. Meaning that even if a child was particularly bright but was in the "clowns" table they wouldn't be noticed because the teacher is too busy with the middle class children. That then results in the child realising that their hard work isn't getting noticed so they will soon just think well why should I bother with this if it's just going to get ignored, so then they do stop working. That links in to the self-fulfilling prophecy, which is a prediction that will come true simply by the virtue of it having been made. Internationalists will argue that labelling can affect pupils achievement by creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. For example, if a student is labelled as intelligent, the prediction made for them is that they are going to do well. That student is then favoured by the teacher that they are going to succeed, being set higher levels of work and paying more attention to them. Therefore the student now becomes this image that the teacher has because he enjoys it and internalises the teachers expectations. Rosenthal and Jacobson carried out a study in Oak community school in California. They told the teachers that the smarter children would be doing a new test specially designed for them, they then selected 20% of the students at random and they were…
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“Attitudes about the body”
We as society view other cultures as being socially incompetent and not on the same level as we view our selves. We hold things on a higher level for our culture and put others down when they don’t meet our standards. Sociologists are important when it comes to these topics because their research of one’s culture and behaviors and practices are very important to the growth of one’s society.…
Each set in society has a different view of the main role of family is as it states in item 2b...
Marxists see all social institutions as serving the interest of capitalism. They argue that institutions such as the family help to maintain the system of class inequality and exploitation, one way which the family does this is by socialising children into accepting hierarchy. The family is also an important market for consumer goods.
Alternatively functionalists argue that the family performs vital…
Asses the View that Natural and Moral Evil Show Bad Design (15 Marks)
The problem of evil is a philosophical argument that is aimed to show that a designer poorly designed the world. In most cases the Christian God is referred to as the designer. We do, however need to make some definitions. Firstly, moral evil is evil caused by a judgement made by an individual, for example murder is a moral evil. Physical evil however is evil that occurs naturally e.g. an earthquake. Both however cause harm…
Outline and asses the Marxist view of the role of education in society.
The Marxist view on the role of education in society is a critical one. Marxists see education as a system of reproducing inequalities between working and middle class. Society needs skilled and unskilled workers, so Marxists see education as responsible for providing these types of workers, in the interest of the economy. However, there are other sociologists like Paul and Wills, David Reynolds and Henry Giroux who had another…
Teeth have become a huge social status indicator in this day and age in America. They show how much money an individual has, along with power. Have you ever seen someone on television from America with poor, crooked, yellow teeth? More than likely the answer is no, but if it’s yes, they were meant to look that way.
The way America thinks is not only mind boggling, in my opinion, but it is wrong. Some of the richest people on earth have really quite awful teeth, but they chose to have them…
Social Causes of the Chinese Revolution
By Nancy Ng
The purpose of this essay is to examine Chapter 4, Social Causes of the Chinese Revolution in Lucien Bianco’s Origins of the Chinese Revolution (1971) and Chapters 3 and 4 of Jung Chang (1992) Wild Swan by highlighting some of the differences and similarities between them. Even though Bianco’s chapter is a well-researched scholarly paper, and Chang’s memoir of the social malaise in China is unmistakably captivating and emotionally provoking…
(Festinger et al., 1952). Researchers in Social Psychology have identified a number of variables that contribute to deindividuation (Guerin, 2003). However, which of these variables is responsible is a widely debated issue, with no conclusive findings to date. The following essay explores the concept of deindividuation according to the leading deindividuation theories.
Gustave Le Bon, one of the first to analyse crowd behavior (Li, 2010), was a French social psychologist who read accounts about crowds…
Compare and contrast the views of Goffman and Foucault on how social oreder is produced.
In a community some form of order is an essential foundation for people to live and interact together. ‘’Order is part of the way people both imagine and practise their social existence.’’ (Silva et al., 2009, p. 311) Taylor (2004, p.58) argued that ‘’ the human capacity to imagine order is at the foundation of society itself.’’ (Taylor, cited in Silva et al., 2009 p.311) Social order draw in imagination…