300 Final Paper

Submitted By ElisaRodriguez11
Words: 576
Pages: 3

Ideology is defined as shared beliefs about how the world is and how it ought to be. Ideology is unquestioned, but more unquestionable. It is an Ideological system of thought which produces language and logic and does not question itself. Ideology works best when invisible. An example of this would be heterosexuality; “whiteness,” or “consumer-capitalism.” These are all basic “underpinnings” of society. They are rules, roles and norms of thought and behavior. It proves we don’t choose to have these beliefs, but rather they a moral obligation implemented through our cultural beliefs.
The Marxist concept of ideology describes how the dominant ideas within a given society reflect the interest of a ruling economic class. According to Marx, humanist optimism is at its center. This begins with an understanding of his condemnation of capitalism as a corrupt or perverse way of pursuing our needs, and his vision of transcending this phase to achieve a higher form of humanity, conscious of our ideal potential to relate to one another in a humane capacity, with freedom, equality and compassion. Sigmund Freud believed within society, “the pleasure principle” plays an important role. Important in the sense that it drives humans, however, leads to guilt and/or pent up energy due to social controls. He believed the psyche to be constructed into 3 parts. The “ID”, which is the part of the psyche that is amoral. It knows neither right nor wrong. The “SUPEREGO” is the part of the psyche that is moral, and seeks perfection. This is also the “reality principle. And finally the “EGO” which contains the will, and balances desires with morality. He strongly believed society produces anxiety. Which anxiety, he stated to be fear without specific cause, and arises by feeling overwhelmed; overwhelmed by need for pleasure, or by guilt. Habermas’s view on ideology is composed of communicative action and the rational society. Communication tends to be rational, and we have responsibilities therefore we must examine our cultural traditions and get rid of the ones that are not rational. He strongly believed that we must critique all ideologies, recognizing that one ideology is not necessarily better than another. Habermas also created the term “ideological domination”. Ideological domination is when society is not rational, and we are