31 4 Outline 1 Essay

Submitted By jennyw6333
Words: 826
Pages: 4

World History 9
Notes Chapter 31 Section 4 – “Aggressors Invade Nations”

1. Japan Seeks an Empire
a. During 1920s, Japan more democratic
b. Weaknesses in Parliamentary system:
i. Strict limits on power of ­­­___________________________________ and cabinet ii. Civilian leaders had little control over military
1. Military leaders answer only to emperor Hirohito
c. Militarists Take Control of Japan
i. When Great Depression hit, people blamed govt
1. Military leaders won control of country ii. Wanted to restore traditional military control of govt iii. Made emperor symbol of state power, but military ruled in his name iv. Militarists were extreme nationalists
1. Wanted to solve economic problems through foreign expansion
2. Planned a Pacific empire that included conquering China
a. Would provide raw materials and markets for goods
b. Give Japan more room for growing population
d. Japan Invades Manchuria
i. Northeast province of China; rich in iron and coal ii. Japan had invest heavily there iii. 1931, Japan seized Manchuria and set up puppet govt
1. Built mines and factories iv. Japan ignored protests of League of Nations and withdrew from it in 1933
e. Japan Invades China
i. 1937 – Japan invades China
1. Capital of Beijing and Nanjing both fell to Japan in 1937
a. Japanese troops killed tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians
b. Communist guerillas under Mao fought Japanese in conquered areas
2. European Aggressors on the March
a. League’s failure to stop Japan encouraged European Fascists to plan their own aggression
b. Mussolini Invades Ethiopia
i. Ethiopia had remained independent in 1890s by defeating Italy
1. To avenge the defeat, Mussolini orders invasion of Ethiopia in Oct. 1935
a. Ethiopians can’t compete with new technologies (poison gas tanks, etc.)
2. Emperor of Ethiopia asks League for help
a. League does nothing, hoping to keep peace by giving in to Mussolini
c. Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
i. March 1935, Hitler announces that Germany would ignore the restrictions placed on their army
1. League didn’t stop him, so Hitler took greater risk ii. German troops moved into the Rhineland (important industrial area which was a buffer zone between Germany and France)
1. British urged appeasement – giving in to an aggressor to keep peace
2. France didn’t want to risk war
3. March in to Rhineland was a turning point
a. Strengthened Hitler’s power and prestige within Germany
b. Balance of power changed in Germany’s favor
i. France and Belgium now open to attack
c. Weak response of Britain and France encouraged Hitler to speed up his expansion
4. Mussolini allys with Germany, called the Rome-Berlin Axis
5. Germany then makes agreement with Japan
6. Germany, Italy, and Japan become the Axis Powers
d. Civil War Erupts in Spain
i. Spain had been a monarchy until a republic formed in 1931 ii. Govt run by liberals and socialists iii. Many crises led to a revolt in 1936 by army leaders who favored a Fascist-style govt
1. Led by General Francisco Franco iv. Began a civil war that lasted three years
1. Hitler and Mussolini send troops and equipment to help Franco and the Nationalists
2. Republican (supporters of Spain’s elected govt) got no help
3. Western democracies remained neutral
4. 1939 – Republicans lost and Franco became fascist dictator
3. Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace
a. Britain