336 338 History Essay

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Pages: 4

Friday, January 17, 2014

Arab Unity - p. 336-338!
Pan-Arabism

- Faced with a common enemy, Arabs have sought to express themselves as a united force. Their commonality is based on 3 factors: !
i.

A common language, ethnicity, and culture: Pan Arabism, !

ii. Belonging to a common organization: the Arab League, ! iii. A common religion: Pan-Islamism!

- A movement born in the 19th Century as a response to the domination by the
Europeans (colonialism), and the Turks (Ottoman Empire)!

- Founded by Michel Aflaq, a Greek Orthodox!
- During Ottoman rule, there were measures taken (i.e. ban of teaching Arabic) that would unify the Arab states into one!

- This unity would be ethnic and linguistic, therefore including Arab speaking people of different geographic locations, and different social and economic backgrounds!

- The movement based its premise for unity on a cultural heritage, but aimed to use this identity to rejuvenate and and redress those forces that had in recent history been the cause of their weakness !

- 1947: Aflaq and Salaheddin Bitar, a Sunni Muslim, formed the Ba’ath Party (Ba’ath meaning resurrection) which called Arabs to suppress state boundaries and unite as one state!

- “Unity, Freedom, and Socialism” was its motto, and its aim was to strengthen the Arab nation against foreign interference through developing branches in every Arab state!

- “The solution of the Arabs today is in unity and their road for achieving unity is through democracy” - Aflaq!

- It was a secular and nationalistic party that aimed to prevent a religious split amongst the Arabs!

- The solution was based on socialism/l fir the young Arab nation to rise, it was necessary to base the new state on social justice!

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Friday, January 17, 2014

- Following WW2, another “common enemy” had come to threaten the Arab nation The Israeli!

- 1948-9 War confirmed the dangers of disunity!
- The Arab states: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria declared war on the emerging state of Israel, but fought as separate countries that pursued rather than a unified state!

- Had They Been United, This Attack Would Have Been More Successful As They
Would Stand A Better Chance Of Defeating Their Enemy!

- This defeat was a good reason for the arabs to form a united force!
- 1956: French, British and Israeli armies were forced back, so Arabs throughout the reason shared Egypt’s victory. This lead to Nasser calling the Suez Canal victory an
Arab nation!

- Thus, Pan-Arabism had found a hero, a leader, and a just cause!
- 1958: ideas were put into action and the United Arab Republic (UAR) between Syria and Egypt was formed!

- a delegation of Syrian politicians belonging to that would Ba’ath party appealed to
Nasser suggesting a total union of their two states!

- Their objective was domestic: to prevent a pro-communist coup and preserve the
Ba’athist dominance in Syria!

- Nasser accepted and became the Republic’s President, Cairo its capital!
- This UAE ended in 1961 because Syria felt overwhelmed by Egypt and feared losing their independence!

Why did Pan-Arabism Fail?

- 1950s, when Nasser launched this idea, the colonial powers that had once united the
Arab states were no longer in…