My Goals for this Lesson:
Recognize that matter is made of particles in constant motion.
Identify the four states of matter.
Differentiate between the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas.
Explain why adding energy to or removing energy from matter can cause it to change phase
I’m preparing to submit an assessment on the States of Matter.
What: Chemistry is the study of composition and properties of the matter around you.
Four States of Matter: Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
Solid: Molecules packed closely together that vibrate in place Ex: Tennis Ball
Liquid: Molecules packed together loosely that are free to move around one another Ex: Ocean Wave
Gas: Molecules spread far apart that move around freely Ex: Fire
Plasma: Ions spread far apart that move freely and quickly Ex: Star Why:
What is matter made up of?
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is made up of tiny particles. Some matter such as gold is made up of individual atoms. Some matter, such as water, is made up of molecules. Some matter such as that found in stars, is made up of charged particles called ions.
How is matter classified?
Particle Arrangement: The particles in solids are packed tightly together. In most solids, the particles are arranged in a specific, fixed pattern. Particle Motion:
The particles are packed so closely together, they cannot move very much. They mainly vibrate in place. Particles cannot move around very much, they have a fixed volume and shape. They do not take the shapes or sizes of their containers.
Particle Arrangement: The particles in liquids are fairly close together as those in solids. They are not arranged in a fixed pattern. Particle Motion: The particles in liquids have enough energy to slide past one another. Particles can move pass each other, but are still close together, they have fixed volumes, but not fixed shapes. They take the shapes of their containers.
Particle Arrangement: The particles in gasses are very far apart. They do not have any fixed arrangement. Particle Motion: The particles in gases have so much energy that they stay as far apart as possible. They are constantly flying around at very high speeds. Particles are so far apart and move so quickly, they have no fixed volume and no fixed shape. They expand to fill their containers. Gases are also highly compressible—that is, it's possible to reduce their volumes considerably by applying pressure to them. That's because there's so much empty space between the gas particles.
Particle Arrangement: The particles in plasmas, like those in gases, are very far apart. They do not have any fixed arrangement. Particle Motion: The particles in plasmas have even more energy than those in gases. They move even more quickly. Like gases, they are compressible and have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. Plasmas also have another important characteristic: they are made up of highly energetic ions. The particles in plasmas have gained enough energy to lose some of their electrons. Plasmas are actually made up of positively charged particles and negatively charged electrons that move around independently.
How do the particles in each state move?
Solid: The particles of a solid are in a tight, fixed position. Since the particles in solids are not free to move around they vibrate just a little. Solids have a set volume and a set shape.
Liquid: The particles of a liquid are close together, but they are not in a neat arrangement like in a solid. They have enough space to slide past each other. Therefore, liquids have a set volume but no set shape.
Gas: The particles of a gas have a lot of space between them. They move fast and in no order. The volume of gas also increases as temperature increases. Gasses have no set volume and no set shape.
Plasma: The particles of plasma gain so much energy that plasma