7 Group Influences cb pp Essay

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Chapter 7
Group Influences on
Consumer Behavior

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Types of Groups
A group is defined as two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs, and have certain interdependent relationships
 A reference group is any group that influences behavior.  Reference groups can be defined by:


Membership in the group
 Attraction or association with the group
 Type of contact with the group


Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Types
Types of of Groups
Groups
Uncategorized

Membership

Attraction
Positive
(associative)

Yes
(membership)
Negative
(dissociative)

Purchasers
(parents)

No
(nonmembership)

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Contact
Frequent
(primary associative)
Limited
(secondary associative)
Frequent
(primary dissociative)
Limited
(secondary dissociative)

Positive
(aspiration)

Desired
(aspiration)

Negative
(dissociative)

Avoided
(dissociative)
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Reference
Reference Groups
Groups Change
Change as as the the Situation
Situation Changes
Changes
Co-workers at weekend job Hometown friends Immediate family Individual

Friends from apartment complex

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Reference group influencing behavior at
Thanksgiving Day dinner celebration

Intramural basketball team

Consumer behavior classmates

Reference group influencing behavior at
“After the final exam” celebration © The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Reference Group Influence
Informational influence occurs when an individual uses the behaviors and opinions of others as useful information.  Normative (utilitarian) influence occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain a reward or avoid a sanction.
 Identification influence occurs when individual have internalized the group’s values and norms, such that behavior is influenced without hope of reward or fear of sanction.


Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Three
Three Types
Types of of Group
Group Influence
Influence

Conformity

Normative influence

Informational influence

Identification influence

High

High

High

Neutral

Neutral

Neutral

Low

Low

Low

Degree of reward or sanction from group

Importance of information provided by group Degree to which group attitudes/values guide individual attitudes/values

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

© The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Consumption
Consumption Situations
Situations and and Reference
Reference Group
Group Influences
Influences
Situation

Behavioral response

A friend mentions that
Brooks Brothers has a good selection of suits.

Needing a new suit, Tim visits a Brooks Brothers store. At several friends’ home,
Maxwell House coffee is served. Tim decides to give
Maxwell House a try.

The best skier in the group uses TRAK skis.

Tim buys a set of TRAK skis. Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Type of influence

Informational

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Consumption
Consumption Situations
Situations and and Reference
Reference Group
Group Influences
Influences
Situation

Behavioral response

Two neighbors joke about
Tim’s car being dirty.

Tim washes and waxes his car.

Tim notices that his friends buy premium beers though he can’t taste the difference.

For parties, but not for home use, Tim buys premium beers.

An ad stresses that “Even your friends won’t tell you” if you have bad breath — they will just ignore you.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Type of influence

Normative

Tim buys the recommended mouthwash.

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Consumption
Consumption Situations
Situations and and Reference
Reference Group
Group Influences
Influences
Situation
Over time, Tim notices that successful executives dress conservatively.

Tim sees an ad showing
“smart young people on the way up” serving
Redondo.
Many of Tim’s friends regularly consume health foods. Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Behavioral response

Type of influence

Tim believes that a conservative image is appropriate for executives and develops a conservative wardrobe.
Tim begins to serve
Redondo.

Identification

Tim decides that health foods are good for you and begins to consume them regularly.
© The…