A Description Of The Structure Of Hydrogen

Submitted By daisytallulah
Words: 1365
Pages: 6

In this report I will be describing and providing an annotated diagram of the structure of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and organic molecules including the four polymers which are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and DNA.

Hydrogen
Hydrogen is a non-metal and has only one electron. Two hydrogen atoms will each share their one electron to form a covalent bond and make a hydrogen molecule. By sharing the two electrons where the shells touch each hydrogen atom can count 2 electrons in its outer shell. These full outer shells with their shared electrons are now stable and will not react with any other hydrogen atom.

Nitrogen
A nitrogen atom has 5 electrons in its outer shell. Two nitrogen atoms will each share three electrons to form three covalent bonds and make a nitrogen molecule. By sharing the six electrons where the shells touch each nitrogen atom can count 8 electrons in its outer shell. These full outer shells with their shared electrons are now stable. Nitrogen and oxygen are most reactant.

Oxygen
Oxygen is a non-metal has 6 electrons in its outer shell. Two oxygen atoms will each share two electrons to form two covalent bonds and make an oxygen molecule. By sharing the four electrons where the shells touch each oxygen atom can count 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Carbon
The nucleus of a carbon atom is made up of 6 protons and 6 neutrons with 6 electrons on the outside of the nucleus. This is organised into two electrons in the first shell and the remaining four on the outer shell, which gives the electron configuration of 2, 4. This is the backbone in almost all organic molecules.

Water
This molecular structure leads to hydrogen bonding. Oxygen and hydrogen are both non-metals. An oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its outer shell and a hydrogen atom has 1 electron in its outer shell. Two hydrogen atoms each share their 1 electron with oxygen to form two covalent bonds and make a water molecule. By sharing the two electrons where the shells touch each hydrogen atom can count 2 electrons in its outer shell and the oxygen atom can count 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Carbon dioxide
An oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its outer shell and a carbon atom has 4 electrons in its outer shell. Two oxygen atoms and 1 carbon atom will each share two electrons to form four covalent bonds and make a carbon dioxide molecule. By sharing the four electrons where the shells touch each oxygen and carbon atom can count 8 electrons in itsouter shell. This type of bonding is two multiple covalent bond.

Covalent bonding
When non-metals react with non-metals they share electrons and form a covalent bond. A covalent bond forms because of the electrostatic attraction between the nuclei of the atoms (that are positive) and the shared electrons (that are negative).
There are no ions present (no + or - charges) because the electrons are shared, not transferred from one atom to another. One pair of shared electrons form a single covalent bond, two pairs of shared electrons form a double covalent bond and three pairs of shared electrons form a triple covalent bond.

Ionic bonding
The Reaction between Sodium and Chlorine. Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell. When an atom of chlorine reacts it will gain one electron from sodium. The outer shell of chlorine will then have 8 electrons and be full. The chloride ion will have an extra electron and therefore an extra negative charge. The electrostatic force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions is called an ionic bond.

Carbohydrates
The roles of carbohydrate in the body includes providing energy for working muscles, providing fuel for the central nervous system, enabling fat metabolism, and preventing protein from being used as energy. Foods containing carbohydrates are in the grains, fruit, milk and vegetables have a small amount of carbohydrate. After carbohydrate is eaten, it is broken down into smaller units of sugar (including…