A Revolution In Politics: The Era Of The French Revolution And Napoleon

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Chapter 19: A Revolution in politics: the era of the French Revolution and Napoleon
Andalib Ismail
Period 5 12/02/14 Reorganization, resistance, and rebellion
The American Revolution:
Causes: the victory of the British over France during the 7 years' war/French-Indian war.
Along with the British policymakers trying to make the colonists pay revenue for the cost of the war, where they incurred debt for defending the colonies.
1765 Stamp Act: was passed to place a tax on colonies, but rebellions erupted, ending the tax.
American and British Differences:
Both: property requirement for voters; could possess property that could be rented for 40 shillings a year.
Britain: 1 in 5 males could vote. Colonies: over 50% of males could vote.
Britain: parliament controlled the entire kingdom.
Colonies: the representative has to live in the community where they wanted to represent. They also had to regard the wants of local districts.
Parliament believed that it had control over everything even the colonies. Colonial assemblies were only temporary-by-laws to the British.
Colonies believed they still had allegiance towards the king and believed that they could make laws for them, but they couldn’t have any interference in their internal affairs.
During the 1760s the American colonists believed they were superior to the old ways of the British and begun to resent them. They wanted independence!
1773 Tea Act: was passed by Parliament to help the Easy Indian co. by allowing them to sell directly to the distributors, this angered the Americans.
They started to rebel when 150 dressed as Indians and dumped the tea overboard into the Boston harbor.
Parliament added the Coercive Act: which closed down port of Boston until they paid the compensation price for the tea destroyed which strengthened the Massachusetts governor.
This led to the first colonial congress: Philadelphia 1774, where they tried to persuade everyone to start armies. In 1775 a rebellion battle between colonists and redcoats appeared in Lexington and concord. The War for Independence
Common Sense 1776: pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that argued that a continent shouldn’t be governed by an Island.
THE Second Continental Congress 1776: approved a Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson: a political document that affirmed the Enlightenments natural rights of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. And it declared that they were free and independent of the British crown. This begun the war!
By 1778 Britain had sent 80000 troops to America and the congress put George Washington in charge of the continental army. Their army was way below the British with weak, undisciplined amateurs of 400000.
Many countries wanted to help the colonies to get revenge on the British, especially the French who donated men, weaponry, and money to the colonists.
Saratoga Battle 1777: British were defeated which led to the French granted diplomatic recognition to the colonies.
Spain and the Dutch Republic joined the War in 1779-1780 and the Russians formed a League of Armed Neutrality1780 which let them protect neutral shipping. The British were in danger of losing even if they won most of the battles. When General Cornwallis surrendered in Yorkton 1781, they called it quits.
Treaty of Paris 1783: recognized independence of the colonies and granted them control over the western territory from the Appalachians to the Mississippi river.
Toward a new Nation
1787 Confederation Congress: decided to devise a new Constitution: created a central gov't that was superior to other gov'ts of local states.
The states still had power, but it diminished. They wanted Montesquieu's balance of power, checks and balances government. National gov't could levy taxes, raise a army, regulate trade, national currency. Executive Power: president who was empowered by an electoral college could levy taxes, veto legislative acts, make judicial and executive appointments, supervise foreign