Great Famine- A series of large scale crisis that struck Europe in the early 14th century. The Great Famine involved bad weather in the spring of 1315 and crop failures that lasted from 1316 to 1317. The Great Famine was a period of extreme levels of starvation, diseases, and crime that resulted in mass death.
Black Death- One of the deadliest disease outbreaks in history. The outbreak was spread around Europe and Mediterranean countries by way of merchant ships. The Black Death killed about half of Europe, around an estimated 400 million people.
Buba- The initial sign that the Pasteurella pestis virus is present in the victim. Buba is an extremely painful built up pus that appeared in the neck, armpit, or groin.
Flagellants- A radical group of monks formed during the time of the Black Death who believed that the plague was an act of God to punish humanity for its sins. Flagellants would perform torture to each other for penance.
Crecy- A battle fought in 1346, during the Hundred Year’s War in Northern France. English longbowmen were triumphant against the French Army.
Agincourt- A battle fought in 1415, during the Hundred Year’s War in the city of Arras. The chivalric soldier-king Henry V of England scored a great victory over the French.
Joan of Arc- an obscure French peasant girl whose vision and work revived French fortunes and led to victory. Many legends surround her, because of her peculiar appearance on the scene, her astonishing success, her martyrdom, and her canonization by the Catholic Church.
Representative Assemblies- A political institution in which a number of persons representing the population or privileged orders within the population of a state come together to debate, negotiate with the executive and legislate.
Nationalism- A feeling of unity that binds people together. Both France and England welcomed these feelings during the Hundred Year’s War as an admiration for both their military’s strength.
Babylonian Captivity- A period of the Christian Church’s history in which the prestige of its leaders were greatly damaged, after living a life of luxury and extravagance.
Schism- The division of something.
Conciliarists- People who believed that reform of the Catholic Church could best be achieved through periodic assemblies. Or general councils representing all the Christian people.
Merchet- A fine to the lord for a woman’s marriage-since he stood to lose a worker
Banns- Public announcements that the couple planned to marry, to allow objections to the union.
Peasants Revolts- Uprisings in which social and economic situations caused a great increase in attention to peasants’ long suffering and exploitation.
Jacquerie- A French peasant revolt, that was in response to the heavy taxation for the Hundred Year’s War.
Racism- Attitudes based on blood descent, characterized the attitudes of colonists toward the native peoples.
Dalimil Chronicle- A survey of Bohemian history pervaded with Czech hostility toward Germans.
Statute of Kilkenny- An attempt in Ireland to prevent intermarriage and protect the racial purity of English settlers.
What economic difficulties did Europe experience? A ‘Little Ice Age’ in the early 1300s caused bad harvests and in turn, caused food prices to sky rocket. The poor harvests led to scarcity of food and led to mass starvation. Since there was low caloric intake within the workers, production dropped so the cost of products then began to skyrocket too.
What were the social and psychological effects of repeated attacks of plague and disease? Since little was known about the disease that hit Europe, cultures and groups of people became scapegoats for the horrific events. The Jews, lepers, and wealthy people were among the scapegoats. People were afraid to go out and go to the cities. And many people became tied to their religion even more for they thought that the plague was an act of God.