A2AS HSC Past Papers Mark Schemes Standard MayJune Series 2012 10992

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General Certificate of Education

Health and Social Care
Assessment Unit AS 3 assessing Unit 3: Health and Well-being



1 (a)
Define the following terms. (AO1)


Health Answers may include some of the following points: • it is generally agreed that there is more than one dimension to health – physical, social, emotional, mental, spiritual well-being
(any three of these will gain [2]) • health is a positive concept that suggests well-being as opposed to illness or disease • health is the absence of disease/not just the absence of disease. [1] for use of key phrase(s), [2] for full explanation Mental health Answers may include some of the following points: • not just the absence of mental illness, but a form of subjective well-being • an individual’s sense of being able to cope, being in control of his/her life, being able to face challenges and take on responsibility • a state of successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity • the ability to organise thoughts and feelings clearly. [1] for use of key phrase(s), [2] for full explanation (2 × [2])


Write down any three socio-economic factors that affect health and well-being. (AO1) Answers must be three of the following: • gender • income • housing • level of education (accept education) • culture and ethnicity • social class. (3 × [1])


Other than risk of death, explain two different ways poor diet, smoking and lack of exercise can affect physical health and well-being.
(AO1, AO2) Poor diet Answers may include two of the following points: • lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet can cause rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults • lack of iron in the diet can lead to anaemia especially in women who lose a lot of iron due to menstruation. Vegetarians are at high risk of anaemia, as they are not getting enough iron from animal sources


a large intake of saturated fat in the diet can lead to obesity and associated health problems like high blood pressure and coronary heart disease • high intake of red meats/processed foods can lead to increased risk of colon cancer • high sugar intake is a cause of dental caries, obesity and Type II diabetes • high levels of salt are linked to hypertension • an unbalanced diet can cause lack of energy and fatigue • a lack of nutrients in the diet can weaken the immune system – more prone to illness like colds • insufficient food intake can lead to weight loss and associated problems like muscle wastage • diet low in fibre can result in constipation and related diseases,
e.g. increased risk of bowel cancer • lack of vitamin C can result in poor absorption of iron and scurvy. All other valid responses will be given credit [1] for use of key phrase(s), [2] for full explanation (2 × [2])


Smoking Answers may include two of the following points: • smoking can give individuals a smoker’s cough and other respiratory problems • smoking can negatively affect an individual’s sense of smell and taste, and this may result in loss of appetite • smoking reduces people’s energy and stamina • smoking increases the risk of getting cancers, especially lung cancer and throat and mouth cancer • smoking greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke • smoking makes the skin age quickly, with the earlier appearance of wrinkles and thinning of the skin • in pregnant women, smoking puts the baby at risk of being small at birth and of suffering from respiratory problems • reduces the ability to exercise and makes people feel unfit • smoking puts other people’s health at risk