AP Human Geography Religion Notes Essay

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Pages: 8

Religion Unit Essay Notes
1. Secularism began to arise with the seperation of church and state in Europe. A. Why is this so? (Deblij 207, 222-224) Secularism is the indifference to or rejection of formal religion. The most secular countries today are in Europe. Secularism has become more widespread during the past century due to the rise in democracy. Democratic governments disadvantage the traditional practices of a religion because they offer freedom, whereas other forms of government may force it's population to practice a specific religion. For example, the predominance of Islam in the Middle East can be associated with the influence of Taliban, a militant movement in the area that enforces the Islamic religion. B. How does
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The ensuing conflict was marked by murder, warefare, and lasting doctrinal agreements. Decendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and his son-in-law Ali are recognized through honorific titles such as sayyids, syeds, or sharifs. They generate respect from both Sunni and Shi'ites, however Shi'ites place much more emphasis on lineage. Shi'ite veneration of the descendants of Muhammad has contributed to a much more centralized and heirarchical clergy than in the Sunni world. In the Shi'ite branch, Imams are leaders whose appointmets they regard as sactioned by Allah. Shi'ites believe that the Imam is the sole source of true knowledge, without sin and infallible, making them a potent social as well as political force. Sunni Islam is much less centralized. An imam for a Sunni is simply a religious leader at a mosque or recognized religious scholar. While religion is divided into Sunni and Shi'ites, which both possess the same origin, there are significant differences between both divisions. As of today, the current leader of Sunni is Imam, while it is Mujtahids for the Shi'ites. As well as their leaders, customs, such as marriage, have remained similar. Both divisions allow marriage of up to four wives, while both religions hold a special prayer on Fridays. But temporary marriage in Sunni is strongly prohibited, as opposed to similar marriage policies. Last but not least, Shi'ites are infallible and perfect examples of humanity. Only