ABA SlideSet12 Essay

Submitted By Cheetahman714
Words: 1280
Pages: 6

Chapter 13
Functional Assessment

Treatment Process Decreasing Problem Behaviors
Identify and define target behavior(s)
-- to decrease and increase (DRA)
-- from interview and observation
2. Initiate data collection
1.



Direct observation method

2. Complete functional assessment
-- hypotheses about antecedents and consequences 4. Develop and implement treatment


5.

Functionally equivalent to problem behavior

Evaluate

5. Evaluation (con’t)
Was treatment effective?
Did problem behaviors decrease and desirable behaviors increase?
YES
Promote maintenance & generalization
NO
Check treatment fidelity/treatment integrity
Was treatment done correctly?
YES - Repeat step #2 (Functional Assessment)
NO - Retrain staff, provide more support, adjust treatment components

Behavioral Model
Behavior is influenced by antecedents and consequences
ABC
Consequences: reinforcement, extinction, punishment
Antecedents: SD, S-delta, MO (EO & AO)
***

Functional Assessment: What to Assess?
Antecedents: SDs SΔs MOs (EOs and AOs)
- When, where, with whom, what circumstances or situations does the behavior occur?
Behavior: Problem behavior
Alternative behavior
Consequences for problem behavior:
– Positive or negative reinforcement
– What does the person get or get out of following the behavior? 4 Categories of Reinforcement
(Functions of Problem Behaviors)
Social positive reinforcement attention, praise, reactions, activities, things
(mediated by others)
Social negative reinforcement escape from tasks, activities, interactions
(mediated by others)
Automatic positive reinforcement sensory stimulation
(not mediated by others)
Automatic negative reinforcement relief from pain, anxiety, or other aversive stimulation
(not mediated by others)

Examples
A 4 year old’s tantrums antecedents: parent makes requests during preferred activities consequences: escape from requested activity; continues preferred activity antecedents: child told he can’t have something consequences: gets the thing he asked for antecedents: teacher busy with other students consequences: teacher directs attention to the child antecedents: teacher makes academic demand consequences: teacher provides extended interaction and assistance consequences: teacher removes academic demand antecedents: sibling touches his toys consequences: sibling stops touching his toys

Examples
17 year old’s hair pulling antecedents: alone, negative thoughts and emotions consequences: relief from negative thoughts/emotions antecedents: alone, watching TV consequences: tactile stimulation antecedents: watching TV, mom busy in the room consequences: attention
8 year old’s wrist biting antecedents: during tooth brushing, sore gums consequences: escape from tooth brushing
18 year old’s binge eating antecedents: alone, sad, negative thinking consequences: relief from negative feeling/thoughts
A 6 year old child with autism hand waving antecedents: not engaged in a task or interaction consequences: visual stimulation

Functional Assessment Methods
1. Indirect assessment
- behavioral interview
- questionnaires and rating scales
2. Direct observation assessment

- descriptive A-B-C recording
- checklist recording of A-B-Cs
- interval recording of A-B-Cs
3. Functional analysis - manipulate antecedents and/or consequences - exploratory - evaluate a number of possible functions or
- hypothesis testing – test and control condition for one function Functional Assessment Questions
Problem behaviors
- Describe all the behaviors involved in the problem
- Is there a predictable sequence of behaviors?

Antecedents
- When, where, and with whom does the problem behavior occur?
- What circumstances, situations, or activities lead to the problem behavior?
- Are there emotional or behavioral predictors of the problem behavior?
- Is the problem behavior related to medication, medical condition, pain, discomfort, problems with sleep, other biological factors, or other setting events?

Functional Assessment…