The Abbasid dynasty lasted from 750-1258 A.D.(Douglas. pg.162-165). The dynasty began with the fall of the earlier caliphate known as the Umayyad’s. The Abbasids were widely accepted when they came to power and wasted no time rebuilding the empire. With the help of wonderful resources and the adoption of ideas from earlier empires, the Abbasid Caliphate blossomed into a prominent golden age. A golden age is a time in which a dynasty makes advancements in multiple fields and aspects of life. In their time as leaders of the Islamic world, their dynasty thrived in all fields. The caliphs built a new city called Baghdad and moved their capital there. This city eventually became the international learning center of the Middle East. Beautifully designed and crafted mosques, libraries and universities popped up, promoting education and spreading important knowledge of the world. This led to progress in math, medicine and science. New technologies including paper-making, advanced maps and explosive gun powder made the Abbasid’s efficiency and power hard to match. The Abbasidian society became more complex and the idea of religious tolerance was spread throughout the capital. The immense amount of trade led to cultural diffusion and the dissemination of ideas throughout the empire. Soon the Abbasid dynasty stretched as far as Morocco in the West to Pakistan in the East, all well protected by a standing army. Under rule of great leaders like Harun al-Rashid and al-Mansur, the Empire flourished with wealth.(wiki. Abbasid Caliphate) Due to the promotion of education, literature and language, the Abbasid dynasty quickly rose to the top in architecture, technology and scholarship.
The fall of the Umayyad’s was a relief to many citizens of the Empire. Almost all were ready to move on from the past and start fresh with the Abbasid Caliphate. With the rise of the Abbasid’s, the traditionally styled imperial architecture predominantly used by the Umayyad’s was forgotten and in its place rose Abbasidian styled architecture. The Abbasids preferred to build with mud brick or baked brick whereas the Umayyad’s were known for their use of stone.(Yalaman) With the building of libraries such as the House of Wisdom, Abbasidian architecture had hints of multiple cultures blended into it.(Yalaman) They adopted the Roman’s technique of manufacturing glass, which led to remarkable stained windows in many of their mosques.(Saylor) They borrowed the idea of domes and arches from the Byzantine empire, which was well known for similar structures.(Abbasid) This is exemplified by the famous mosque “Dome of the Mosque” which is stationed in Israel and built under Abbasid control. (Abbasid) The Abbasids vast knowledge of geometry, much of which was inherited from the Greeks, led them to designing buildings that were sturdy and durable. Lastly, the Abbasids adopted a new form of carving which proved to be more efficient and provide a smoother result.(Yalaman) This new abstract style was called the pseudo-vegetal form and was taken from the Egyptians.(Yalaman) The Abbasids also developed some of their own original architecture. A new fancier type of calligraphy established and commonly used by scribes. Some of what was written was so elaborate, that it was illegible and considered art. The Abbasid’s ability to build off other culture’s architecture led to diversity and economical gain in the arts.
During the Golden Age of the Abbasids, there was peace and happiness throughout the empire. The rulers of the Abbasid Caliphate stressed education and were looking to make advancements in all fields. Many of the Abbasidian cities opened universities, libraries and places of education for their people. This led to an abundance of general knowledge and gains in math, science medicine and astronomy. Great mathematicians such as Al-Kwarzimi formed the roots of algebra.(Jordan. P.1-3) In fact, algebra was even named after him. Other