Diagnosis of a psychological disorder is applied when the symptoms have a substantial effect on one’s life.
Abnormal psychology is the subfield of psychology that studies the causes and progression of psychological disorders; it’s also known as psychopathology.
4 D’s: Distress, Dysfunction, Dangerousness, and Deviance.
The four elements: distress, impairment, risk of harm, and deviance. Do not all need to be present if one or two of the elements are severe enough to warrant a diagnosis of a psychological disorder.
Severe distress, by itself, does not necessarily indicate a psychological disorder.
Impairment is a significant reduction of one’s ability to function in some area of life.
Psychosis is an impaired ability to think logically and to perceive reality to the extent that normal functioning is not possible.
Hallucinations are sensations which are so vivid; they appear real although they are not.
Delusions are persistent false beliefs that are held despite evidence that the beliefs are incorrect or exaggerate reality.
Treatment for mental disorders in the medieval times would consist of exorcism or trephination.
The modern medical model has its roots in Hippocrates’ view that all illnesses have a basis in biological disturbance.
John Locke proposed that insanity is caused by irrational thinking.
The asylum for men was St. Mary of Bethlehem--“Bedlam”
The asylum for women was called St. Mary Magdalene—”Maudlin”
Pinel believed in treating a person though psychological means such as reasoning. He believed madness was a disease and distinguished between different forms of madness.
Etiology is study of the cause of the illness.
Quakers started the Moral Treatment, which consisted of providing an environment in which people with mental illness were treated with kindness and respect and