1. Know how to recognise signs of abuse
Abuse – (definition in Oxford dictionary) use (something) to bad effect or for a bad purpose; misuse. Treat with cruelty or violence, especially regularly or repeatedly. Speak to (someone) in an insulting and offensive way.
1.1. Define the following types of abuse:
1.1.1. Physical abuse
An act of another party involving contact intended to cause feelings of physical pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm including hitting, slapping, pushing, kicking, or inappropriate sanctions.
1.1.2. Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is forcing undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another. When that force is immediate, of short duration, or infrequent, it is called sexual assault. The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or (often pejoratively) molester
1.1.3. Emotional/psychological abuse
Emotional abuse is subjecting an individual to bullying tactics such as threats. These bullies can take away the self-confidence of their victim and sometimes render them brain washed into believing they will never make a go of it on their own or they are ugly; fat; the opposite sex wouldn't want them; they are stupid or, in the elderly threatening to put the elderly person in a home if they do not conform to the abuser's wishes.
1.1.4. Financial abuse
Financial abuse is a form of mistreatment and fraud in which someone forcibly controls another person's money or other assets.
1.1.5. Institutional abuse
Institutional abuse is the maltreatment of a person (often children or older adults) from a system of power. This can range from acts similar to home-based child abuse, such as neglect, physical and sexual abuse, and hunger, to the effects of assistance programs working below acceptable service standards, or relying on harsh or unfair ways to modify behaviour.
Self – neglect is a behavioural condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs, such as personal hygiene, appropriate clothing, feeding, or tending appropriately to any medical conditions they have
1.1.7. Neglect by others
Is failure to provide the necessities of life to the individual with the intent to coerce or physically harm the individual and the unlawful expenditure or wilful dissipation of the funds or other assets owned or paid to or for the benefit of the individual.
1.2. Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse
Physical abuse: multiple bruising, fractures, burns, depression, fear, weight loss without reason, bed sores
Sexual abuse: soreness around the genitals, unexpected weight loss, unexpected behaviour change, stained or bloody underwear, sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy
Emotional/ psychological Abuse: fear, depression, loss of sleep, unexpected behaviour change
Financial Abuse: unusual activity in the bank account, unexplained withdrawals from the bank, unpaid bills, fraud
Institutional Abuse: Inflexible and non-negotiable systems and routines, lack of consideration of dietary requirements, name calling; inappropriate ways of addressing people, lack of adequate physical care – an unkempt appearance
Neglect: malnutrition, bed sores, confusion, over sedation, untreated medical problems
1.3. Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse
We can distinguish factors relating to residents or abuser. Factors for the abuser could include the abuser having lack of training also abusing their power. Sometimes carer (abuser) has a history of abuse and continuing the cycle. Factors for an individual can include place where they live – they may live in poor housing or have to share a home with people they haven’t chosen to be with. They may need help with personal care and daily living or they need more care than theirs carers can give. They can be less aware of their rights and they