Use some of the words below to give advice on good academic writing. abstract accompany accurate/ accuracy/ inaccurate/ inaccuracy acknowledge/ acknowledgement adequate/ inadequate/ inadequacy adjust advocate affect aid alter/ alteration alternative ambiguous/ ambiguity/ unambiguous analysis/ analyse appendix/ appendices approach/ approachable appropriate/ inappropriate/ appropriateness approximate/ approximation arbitrary/ arbitrariness assign/ assignment assistance assume/ assumption attach/ attached/ unattached/ attachment attribute author authority/ authoritative aware/ unaware/ awareness bias/ biased brief/ brevity category/ categorize chapter chart cite/ citation clarify/ clarity/ clarification clause coherence/ coherent/ incoherent compile/ compilation comprehend/ comprehensive comprise concept/ conceptual/ conceptualise confer/ conference conclude/ conclusion/ conclusive/ inconclusive conflict/ conflicting consent/ consensual consistent/ consistency/ inconsistent contact/ contactable content contradict/ contradiction contribute/ contributor/ contribution controversial/ controversy convention/ conventional/ unconventional correspond/ correspondence credit criteria data/ figures/ statistics define/ definition differentiate diverse/ diversity draft eliminate/ elimination emphasize/ emphasis ensure error extract feature format framework fundamental goal grant guideline highlight hypothesis/ hypotheses/ hypothetical ignorant/ ignorance illustration/ illustrate impact imply/ implication incorporate/ incorporation indicate/ indicative infer/ inference insert/ insertion instance interpret/ interpretation issue journal label methodology
Written by Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com © 2013
minimal/ minimise/ minimum modify/ modification norm/ protocol objective option/ optional overall paragraph/ paragraphing precede precise/ precision/ imprecise principal process proportion/ proportionate/ disproportionate publish/ publication/ publications/ published/ unpublished quote/ quotation reject/ rejection relevance/ relevant/ irrelevance/ irrelevant scope significant/ significance/ insignificant source specify/ specific straightforward structure/ structural style/ stylistic submit/ submission subordinate sufficient/ insufficient summarize theory/ theoretical thesis/ theses utilise/ utilisation
Suggested phrases avoid because/ as best can difficult don’t example generally if important impossible main make sure may must need never probably require/ requirements should some people believe sometimes therefore unless usually worth Written by Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com © 2013
Put at least one of the words above into each of the gaps below to make good advice about academic writing.
1. “The _______________________________________________________________” is an alternative to “I” in academic writing, though it can seem pretentious.
2. A _____________________________________________________ can be labelled
“Fig. 1”, but shouldn’t be referred to as “The figure”, as that means “The number”.
3. A good title can really ______________________________ how many people read your paper, and therefore also influence how often your paper is cited in the future.
4. A second ______________________________________________________ of your writing should be edited versions of the first attempt, not the original version with notes. However, you can mark the changes to make them stand out, by using red fonts etc. 5. ________________________________________________________ of data should be written after the diagram or table, perhaps following a more basic description.
6. Any __________________________________________________________ made in researching or writing the paper should be written near the beginning of a paper.
7. Don’t confuse a summary and a _________________________________________.
8. Don’t confuse magazines and academic (usually meaning peer-reviewed)