Acct: Forces B. Sociology Essay

Submitted By mtowens20
Words: 603
Pages: 3

1: The Sociological View

I. What is Sociology?

SOCIOLOGY:

A. Sociology offers a perspective or view of the world

SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION:

- Allows individuals to view their lives as they are shaped by historical/social forces

B. Sociology is a science

- positivism:

C. Sociology and Common Sense

D. Sociological Theory - Sociologists attempt to explain events, forces, materials, ideas, behaviors, etc. in a comprehensive manner.

THEORY:

- Explanatory or predictive

E. The Development of Sociology - People have always been curious about sociological matters.

- Sociology developed out of social upheaval and change (18th and 19th centuries)

← all these contributed to people relying less on tradition and more on science to understand social life

F. Early Sociologists • Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

• Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)

• Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

• Karl Marx (1818-1883)

• Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

• Max Weber (1864-1920)

IDEAL TYPE:

• W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963)

II. Why study sociology? • Sociology and the sociological perspective help us to… o gain an understanding of ourselves and our social world o see opportunities and constraints in our lives o see connections between our lives and the patterns of society o be active participants in our society o live in a diverse world o critically assess “common sense ideas”

III. What sort of issues do sociologists study? • At BGSU…

• Family Studies

• Demography

• Criminology/Deviance

• Social Psychology

IV. Major Theoretical Perspectives How can we use sociology to interpret everyday life?

• Sociologists place their observations into frameworks – theories – that help them to understand everyday life.

• Perspectives differ in their levels of analysis

A. Functionalist Perspective

• Views society as a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together

• If society is to function smoothly, various parts must work together in harmony. • Examines the relationships among the parts of society

o function:

MANIFEST FUNCTION:

LATENT FUNCTION:

DYSFUNCTION:

B. Conflict Perspective • Views society as composed of groups competing for resources

• Examines the conflict or tension between competing groups

• Developed by Karl Marx o Industrial Revolution

• Feminist Perspective

C. (Symbolic) Interactionist Perspective • Examines social interactions; studies how people use symbols to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and to communicate with one another

• Analyzes how our behaviors depend on the ways we define ourselves and others

V. Sociological Research How do sociologists know what they know? - Research and theory go hand in hand

A. Scientific Method

1. Define the problem

OPERATIONAL DEFINTION:

2. Review the literature

3. Formulate hypothesis

HYPOTHESIS:

VARIABLE:

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:

DEPENDENT VARIABLE:

CONTROL VARIABLE:…