Lab Exam 2 Review: Exercise 19: What are staphylococcus and streptococcus? Difference between them. Test to differentiate them. Role of catalase Effect of hydrogen peroxide on other bacteria Disease caused by staphylococcus aureus Definitive test for S.aureus Role of coagulase Exercise 20: Expand IMViC This can be used only for enteric bacteria Role of tryptophanase Kovac reacts with indole to produce rose color. Test to identify the presence of tryptophanase in a medium. Composition of MRVP media Methyl red test is for: Acidic end products of fermentation lowers the pH of the media. Voges-Proskauer: Few bacteria produce end products such as ethanol and 2,3 butanediol. KOH and alpha Naphtol react with acetoin (precursor of 2,3 butanediol) to produce pink or red color. Enteric bacteria can never show both MR and VP negative test. Citric acid – produced by citric acid cycle. Citrate test used to identify the production of citrase enzyme. Role of citrase Composition of simmon’s citrate agar. When does BTB turns royal blue? Exercise 21: Role of urease Proteus can be differentiated from other enteric bacteria by their urease activity. Importance of urease ecologically Broth used for urease test Positive test for urease Exercise 22: At birth mucous membrane is sterile. First invaders of mouth and throat S.mutans appears when teeth arise and disappear as the teeth…
growth promoters. Although they are non-digestible oligosaccharides, the mode of action of MOSs
differs from other prebiotics. By definition, prebiotics are non-digestible components of feed that
stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system and promote the gut
and general health of the host . MOSs have recently been assigned to nutricines based on the
reasoning that they are not direct nutrients either for intestinal microbiota or for the host, but
Fungi and protozoa
Cell wall – Peptidoglycan
Gram + = purple – thick peptidoglycan layer teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids
Gram - = pink – thin peptidoglycan layer (outer membrane) LPA
Peptidolgycan synthesis –
Composed of alternating NAM and NAG with a B1,4 glycosidic bond joining
3rd AA from one chain binds to 4th AA of second side chain
Teichoic acids – polymers containing glycerophosphate or…
Nowadays, the use of fuels plays an important role in the lives of people. Gas and oil is used mostly for vehicles and industry machinery, heating, and plastic production. Unfortunately, this element naturally present in the environment is not an unlimited resource.
Regardless of the great repercussions of natural oil and gas on the environment, the humankind has become so dependent on this limited element. The question is what would happen if we exhaust this resource. Foreseeing…
The digestive system is a continuous tube composed of 6 primary regions.
ii. Pharynx & Oesophagus
iv. Pancreatic & biliary Secretions
v. Small Intestines
vi. Large Intestines
The digestive systems primary role is to transfer nutrients, water and electrolytes into the internal environment and to circulate it via the circulatory system.
The Digestive system is primarily composed of smooth muscle and therefore under involuntary control. Areas of control such…
complications in the United States
annually . NSAIDs may also affect the colon, although by
comparison this effect is relatively rare and mostly documented in isolated case reports. NSAIDs-induced colitis is
described following the use of mefenamic acid and may
also occur with other NSAIDs .
Mechanism of NSAIDs-induced small bowel
A two stage pathogenic framework for NSAID-induced
damage  that comprises an initial biochemical event
(uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria)…
administration. They observed the desirable controlled release of insulin and thus further signified the use of ceramic nanopartiles as delivery vehicles for the proteins and peptides.
Khopade et al. (2006) prepared hydroxyapatite core by using carboxylic acid terminated half generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as templates or crystal modifiers. These cores were further coated with trehalose followed by adsorption of haemoglobin to obtain aquasomes. The size of the particles was found to be in…
constant bombardment of advertisements telling viewers that there are products available to assist them with gastrointestinal issues. The products range from antacids to stool softeners to various drugs which are supposed to help us with heartburn, acid reflux, gerd, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease to name a few. It would appear that the need for such products is great and that there must be a lot of people suffering from any or all of these…
Acids, Bases and Salts
An acid is any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ionactivity greater than in pure water, i.e. a pH less than 7.0 in its standard state. That approximates the modern definition of Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Martin Lowry, who independently defined an acid as a compound which donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (called a base). Common examples include acetic acid (in vinegar) and sulfuric acid (used in car…