Understanding the Ear
In this assignment I’m going to be explaining how the ear works. The ear is typical described of three sections the inner ear, outer ear and middle ear. Each part of the ear plays an important role in the processer of delivering sound to the brain.
Diagram of the Ear:
Definition of the Ear:
Pinna or Auricle – The pinna is the visible part of the ear that resides outside of the head. The purpose of pinna is to collect sound. By acting as a funnel, amplifying the sound and directing it to the ear canal. While the sound is passing through the pinna. At the same time sound is going through a filter process. This process is when the sound is in the frequency range and that is when the human speech is enhanced. The filter process also adds directional information to the sound.
Ear or Auditory Canal – The auditory canal has two main functions: it provides passage for the sound travelling from the pinna to the eardrum, and it protects the ear from infection. In order to protect the ear the auditory canal has several lines of defence. The part of the tube close to the pinna is full of nerve ending and it’s covert with soft, sensitive skin. Further in, the canal contains small hairs that filter out debris. The final line of defence protecting the ear is a group of wax fibres called cerumen stands. The only thing that is able to successfully pass through the auditory canal is sound, which then continues to the eardrum.
Eardrum or Tympanic Membrane – The tympanic membrane consists of three layers of different material. The layer close to the auditory canal is composing of skin, the next layer is of a fibrous and elastic material, and the final layer is a mucus producing lining. The tympanic membrane is very thin and translucent. The tympanic membrane vibrates when impacted by sound waves that have travelled through the auditory canal, and then transfers these vibrations to the middle ear.
Hammer or Malleus – Malleus to transmit the vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the next tiny bone is the ear.
Anvil or Incus- The incus transmits those vibrations to the third small bone in the ear.
Stirrup or Stapes- The stapes then transmits vibrations to the membrane of the inner ear, where they can be communicated to the brain for processing and hearing.
Oval or Vestibular Window - Vestibular window is a membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear. It sits immediately behind the base shape of the stapes and begins vibrating when stuck by the stapes.
Round or Cochlear Window – Round window is a membrane, located at the end of the cochlea. When the sound energy reaches this point, it is transformed into hydraulic energy. The round window bulges outward as pressure rises in the inner ear.
Auditory or Eustachian Tube – The auditory tube is normally closed but opens from time to time. It opens when you yawn or chew. It allows air to flow into the middle ear and any mucus flow out.
Cochlea - The cochlea is a small, curled tube in the inner ear. Sound comes into the inner ear as vibration and enters the cochlea. The cochlea is also lined with tiny cells covered in tiny hairs that are small. When sound reaches the cochlea, the vibrations cause the hairs on the cells to move, creating nerve signals that the brain understands as sound.
The hearing machinery of our body consists of three parts: the outer, middle and inner ear. The outer ear comprises of two curled shells each on either side of the head. The tissue thin membrane lies between the outer and the middle ear.
The outer ear is what we can see it is called pinna. The main job of the outer ear is to collect sounds, whether they're your friend's whispers or a barking dog. The outer ear also includes the ear canal, where wax is produced. Earwax contains chemicals that fight off infections that could hurt the skin inside the ear canal. It also collects dirt to help keep the ear canal clean.