Addiction of Prescription Opiates Opioid abuse is a worldwide problem for both industrialized and developing countries (Jenkinson & Ravert, 2013). Opium has been used for an analgesic for at least 3500 years and is derived from the papaver somniferum plant, known as the poppy. By the eighteenth-century, opium was known to control pain by physicians with a limited anxiolytic and antipsychotic effect (Doweiko, 2012). By the time of the Civil War, morphine, which is a derivative of opium, was commonly used for medicinal purposes both on the battlefields and in the general society for a wide range of ailments. Since this time, large number of opiate-based analgesics have been introduced and can be classified into three groups. Natural opiates, are obtained directly from the poppy plant, like morphine. Semisynthetic opiates, which are chemically altered derivatives of natural opiates, an example would be heroin. Synthetic opioids, which are not derived from natural opiates, like methadone. Opioids are commonly used to treat pain. Opioid abuse would be defined when an opiate is used for a nonmedical use or used differently than is prescribed. In 2008, more than 33 million Americans used a pain reliever for a nonmedical purpose (Jenkinson & Ravert, 2013). After marijuana, prescription narcotics are the most commonly abused class of chemicals and is more common than heroin addiction (Doweiko, 2012). Reasons for opioid abuse can be at first to alleviate pain and can then develop in to an addiction when cravings of wanting to feel good arise, which is the release of dopamine in the reward system of the brain. These addictions can develop over a very short time and possibly after just a few days of continuous use. It is more likely for males to become addicted to opiates over females with a ratio of 3:1. There are several risk factors for an individual to become addicted to opioids, which include: personal history of addiction, family history of addiction, history of criminality, young age, high levels of pain sensitivity, comorbid depression and anxiety, high pain “catastrophizing”, history of childhood abuse, history of personality traits consistent with novelty seeking, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior, multiple psychosocial stressors (Patel, 2013). Currently in the twenty-first century, the United States is in the midst of a major public health problem when it comes to prescription
13 November 2014
High on Profits, Death by Opiates
Nora D. Volkow, M.D., Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control states that 2.1 million People in America are currently suffering from prescription opiate addiction (par. 1). The United States is the top consumer of the world’s supply of opiates. Tens of thousands overdose every year from prescriptions such as Vicodin, Hydrocodone, OxyContin, Codeine, and Methadone. Opiate overdose out ranks the deaths of cocaine and heroin combined…
Does a two-drug combination have the potential to fight cocaine addiction?
Portland State University
Carlo Olkeriil, Graduated School of Education Department, Portland State University
This Research Paper was written in part of the Grading and Course Requirements of the COUN 507: Addiction Pharmacology taught by Terry Alan Forrest, LPC, LMFT
DOES A TWO-DRUG COMBINATION HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO FIGHT COCAINE ADDICTION?
as the illegal synthetic opiate called heroin. The rate of prescriptions has increased ten times what it was twenty years ago because of the fact that it is prescribed for too many different reasons and for long term use. These drugs are highly addictive and easily tolerated by most people.
The problem is that opioids will cause a sense of euphoria much like heroin which is highly attractive to drug abusers. Columbia University researchers reported that opioid addiction had tripled over a ten year…
(amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine), opiates (heroin, codeine, and morphine), and hallucinogens (marijuana and LSD). Specific diagnoses are further categorized as substance dependence, substance abuse, substance intoxication, and substance withdrawal.
Provide a brief definition of addiction, in your own words. What are the similarities and differences in the levels of involvement in the following substance-related stages of addiction: use, intoxication, abuse, and dependence? Discuss…
The most popular abused drugs fall into three categories. Depressants of the central nervous system typically used to anxiety or sleep disorders. Stimulant used to treat such disorders as ADHD and ADD and the most commonly abused are opiates used to treat pain. Opiates attach to receptors in the…
behavioral and clinical neuroscientist at the University of Cambridge in England.
These three tendencies all have slightly different origins in the brain, he said, but they all contribute to the story of stimulant drug addiction—clouding people's judgment during the early stages of addiction, and then making it harder for them to quit.
"These drug abusers ... have poisoned their frontal cortex and produced decision-making deficits," Robbins said.”
Depressants have the exact opposite effect of stimulants…
in a counseling center for drug addiction in Pittsburgh, Pa. She has a history of addiction to alcohol and benzodiazepines but has maintained sobriety for over 15 years. She has been a licensed clinical social worker for 12 years and she does enjoy the job very much and plans on it being her long term career, at least for the next ten years. New Directions Treatment Center is a drug treatment center for opiate addiction and does disperse methadone, which is an opiate blocker to help people maintain…
Jack Markham English 11/Set: 6
6/12/14 Research Paper
Heroin. Big H, smack, junk, black tar, dope, snow…it has many names, multiple forms, and a very strong grasp. Heroin is an opiate, a class of drugs that are either naturally derived from the flowers of the poppy plant, or synthetic substitutes. In the case of heroin, it’s produced from morphine, a naturally occurring substance that comes from the seedpod of poppy plants. This drug is and has been increasing…
believed to be the first written description of opioid dependence (Hart and Ksir 298).
According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, opioids are among the drugs commonly used recreationally. Opiates are opium extracts and they, along with opium derivatives and a number of synthetic opiate-like drugs are known collectively as opioids. Opium, heroin, morphine, methadone and codeine are prominent opioids and are also referred to as narcotics. The drugs are considered desirable by recreational…
Healing & Hurting Rough Draft
Healing & Hurting Rough Draft
Marijuana and opiates help when there’s pain you cannot naturally fight. But when abused they both get you higher than a kite. Medical Marijuana and opiates are used for pain relief, but are widely used for substance abuse.
What is Marijuana? Is it an illegal drug? Or is marijuana a medical breakthrough? The United States Government contradicts itself everyday with this issue. The United States…