1. What is biology?
2. What is the scientific method? What are the steps of the scientific method? How does scientific investigation begin? Do scientists always follow the scientific method? Be sure to understand and be able to describe each step.
3. List and explain the 8 characteristics of life.
4. Define the following terms: unicellular, multicellular, and homeostasis.
5. How do you determine the magnification of a microscope? How do objects appear in a microscope?
6. Distinguish between an autotroph and a heterotroph. Give examples of each.
7. Describe and explain food chains and food webs. Differentiate between producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers.
8. What happens to the overall energy as you move “up” trophic levels? Why?
9. What is an autotroph? Heterotroph? How are they similar? Different? Give examples of each.
10. Explain the organization of organisms from organism to biosphere. Be sure to define each level of organization.
Chemistry of Life
11. Define atom.
12. What are the charge, location, symbol of the proton, neutron, and electron?
13. What are atomic number and mass number? How can you determine each of them?
14. What is the difference between an element and a compound?
15. What are the six most common elements found in living things?
16. What are two main types of chemical bonds? How are they the same? How are they different?
17. What is a solution? What two components make up a solution?
18. What is a mixture? How is it different from a compound?
19. Why is water a polar molecule? What properties of water result from being polar?
20. What is an organic compound? What is special about carbon that allows it to form so many different compounds?
21. How many bonds can carbon form? What kind of bonds can carbon form?
22. What is pH? What does it measure? What is the pH range for acids? Bases? Neutral?
23. What are the four major classes of organic compounds (macromolecules?) and draw their structures.
24. What are carbohydrates made of?
25. What is the main function of carbohydrates?
26. What are lipids made of?
27. What are some functions of lipids?
28. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
29. What are some examples of lipids?
30. What is the main function of nucleic acids?
31. What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
32. What are some examples of nucleic acids?
33. What is the monomer of proteins?
34. What are some functions of proteins?
35. What are some examples of proteins?
36. Explain a chemical reaction, in terms of products and reactants.
37. What is activation energy?
38. What are enzymes? What do they do? What are the three letters (suffix) that typically indicate an enzyme? How are enzymes and substrates like a lock and key?
Cell Structure, Function and Transport
39. What is a cell?
40. What is the cell theory? Describe the three main priniciples.
41. Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Give examples of each type.
42. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
43. Be able to identify (on a cell diagram) and explain the structure and function of each organelle: nucleus nuclear envelope cytoskeleton cytoplasm mitochondria ribosome endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleolous cell wall chromatin centriole cell membrane
44. Explain in detail the structure of the cell membrane.
45. What are the functions of the cell membrane?
46. Why is the cell membrane considered a