Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the disorders that covered under neurodevelopmental disorder. According to the definition, in DSM 5, ADHD is often referred to as hyperactivity and categorized by inability or difficulty to maintain task-oriented behavior. Children express impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity, such as haphazard running or fidgeting ( Nigget al., 2005).One of the examples of ADHD would be the child that have an issue of paying attention not just in school but at home as well, additionally difficulty in organizing and paying attention to the detail as well as excessive talking and ability to remain still. According to DSM-5, the criteria's for ADHD is individuals that show the persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that conflict with function and development. The six or more symptoms in children up to age of 16 and five or more in 17 years older and older. Additionally the symptoms must have been present for six month or longer. Some of the symptoms of inattention are: often forgetful in daily activities, distracts easily, had trouble with activity and organizing tasks, makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at home and do not follow through with the instructions. Also six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity in children up to age 16 and five or more in 17-year-old or older must be present as well. Likewise, symptoms must be present for six month or longer. The symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are trouble in waiting for his or her turn, overly talkative, disturbs others in conversation or games, inability to take part in activities quietly, and inability to sit still.
Although the hyperactive syndrome was introduced long ago, scientists are still unsure what the cause of it is. Many studies have suggested however that there are many different factors from genes to environment. Genes for example alone can play a great role. Genes are something that individuals inherit from parents and grandparents. Learning about individual's gene may help to prevent the disorder before it is starting to develop. As noted by National Institute of Mental Health (2012), "A study of children with ADHD found that those who carry a particular version of a certain gene have thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention" (para, 11).
While genes can play a significant role in the possibility of attributing to ADHD, environmental factors may attribute to developing disorder as well. As an example, if the mother of the unborn child smokes and drinks during the pregnancy, the child will have the higher risk of developing ADHD. "Studies suggested a potential link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and ADHD in children" (National Institute of Mental Health, 2012, para, 13).
According to Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders or DSM-5 that 5% of children have ADHD. However, studies in United States show much higher percentage. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that the rate changed over the time and increased from 2003 by 3.2%. The survey was done concluded that 11% of children between the ages of 4-17 have been diagnosed with ADHD in 2011. Also, the boys are likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than girls.
Many studies have instituted the effectiveness of different treatments; the ones that made the significant impact