1. Articles- a , an, the a – use before words beginning with a consonant sound (the rest of the alphabet)
An- use before words beginning with a vowels sound (a, e, i, o, u).
2. Demonstrative adjectives
These points out specific objects, person, places and things. Always comes before noun
Includes- this, these, those, that.
3. Indefinite adjectives
These demonstrate less specific than demonstrative
Includes- each, one, another, many, no, either, some, few, several, any, neither, other, all, both, and every.
Used to ask questions
Includes- what, whose, and which.
Indicate ownership, or show possession.
Includes- my, our, his, hers, their, your, its.
6. Absolute adjectives
Cannot be made into more than they already are
Includes- almighty, circular, complete, correct, dead, empty, endless, equal, ever or everlasting, exact, honest, infinite, matchless, omnipotent, omniscient, perfect, perpendicular, perpetual, right, round, single, square, supreme, triangular, wrong.
Pronouns take the place of noun.
Adjectives generally modify noun.
The verb is used to express action or state of being.
1. Types of verb
2. Linking verb- link the subject and another verb.
Am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been.
3. Helping verb- they show shift in tense or time
Am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, had, has, have, shall, will, can, may, should, would, could, would, might, must, do, does, did, must.
Four Principal parts:
Infinitive- The infinitive is the to form of the verb ( to call, to walk, to love)
Present participle- ends in –ing (walking, loving, riding)
Past tense- regular verbs ending –ed (walked, loved, called) (other- rode, sank, drove)
Past participle- regular verbs ending –d, -ed, -n or –en (sunken, dried)
This forms perfect tenses with had, have, and has.
Expression of time and action
3 simple tense (no helping word needed)
Present ( the loon cries mournfully)
Past ( the loon cried mournfully)
Future (requires helping verb will) ( the loon will cry mournfully) And 3 perfect tenses (require helping verb- has, had, have)( have may change for plural subjects)
Present perfect ( the loon has cried mournfully)
Past Perfect ( the loon had cried mournfully)
Future perfect ( the loon will have cried mournfully)
1. Use the present tense to describe current conditions and repeated procedures
( eg.- the patients complains of knee pain)
2. Use the present perfect tense to indicate the actions that happened in the past but are connected to the present
( eg.- the patients has complained of knee pain)
3. Use simple past tense with events that happened in the past
( eg.- the patient complained of knee pain)
4. Use past perfect to indicate event connecting between actions that happened in the past
( eg.- the patients had complained of knee pain before she fell on the floor)
5. Use future tense for the action that will begin in the future
( eg.- the patients will complain about knee pain after surgery)
6. Use perfect future tense to indicate a connection between the events that will be connected in the future
( eg.- the patients will…