ADN Final study guide 1 Essay

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Theorists and theories:
*Orem: -self-care Model (1959)
-Theory of self-care
-Theory of self-care deficit
*Henderson: -defined nursing and specified the role of the nurse in relation to the patient
- Identified 14 basic needs as a general focus of patient care
- linked her definition of nursing that emphasize the functions of the nurse with a list of basic care needs.
*Watson: -Caring aspect of nursing
-Emphasized a return to earlier values of nursing and emphasized the caring aspect of nursing
-Proposed 10 “carative factors” to differentiate nursing from medicine
-Nursing as a Human-to-human relationship
-Founded the center for human caring at the University of Colorado
*King: Theory of Goal Attainment
-Focuses on people, their interpersonal relationship and their social context
-Referred to as the personal, the interpersonal system, and the social system
-Nurses focus on goal attainment for and by the patient
*Peplau: Theory of Interpersonal relations in nursing
-all nursing is based on the interpersonal process and the nurse-patient relationship
-The relationship between patient and nurse is the focus of attention rather than the patient as the only unit of attention
-“Six roles” of nurse: Counselor, Resource, Teacher, Technical expert, Surrogate, and a Leader
*Nightingale: “Environment Theory”
-Changing a patient’s environment could positively affect their health (Fresh air, more daytime light)
-Believed health care is related to the patient’s environment
-Recognized nursing’s role in protecting patients
-Promoted sensitivity to the effect of the environment
*Roy: Adaptation Model
-Focuses on individual as a bio-psychosocial adaptive patient system
-Nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasizes the persons adaptive coping abilities, including the need for alterations in the person’s environment
*Leininger: “Transcultural Nursing/Care”
-Goal of transcultural nursing involves planning nursing care based on specific planning, knowledge that is culturally defined, classified and tested
-Patients must be viewed in the context of their culture in order to provide good care
*Jessie Sleet Scales: a visionary African-American nurse, was the first to bring community nursing principle to the slums of New York City (1900s)
-Scales and Tyler established the Stillman House
*Mary Breckinridge: A nurse and a midwife, established the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies later known as FNS
*Margaret Sanger: A radical nurse activist, Devoted her life to The Birth Control Movement for women (Safe Contraceptive and Family Planning for women)
*Isabel Hampton: presented a paper in which she protested the lack of uniformity across nursing schools, which led to inadequate curriculum development and nursing education.
*Lillian Ward: Nurse and Social activist, Founded the Henery Street Settlement, One of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

American Civil War: 1861-1873
An incentive for training for nursing
AFTER: Moved towards Education and Licensure under the challenges of segregation, feminization of nursing, discrimination against males (African-American and Jewish)
Chicago World Fair: (1893)
-Several nursing leaders emerged after gathering at the fair to share ideas
-NLN (National League for Nursing)
-1896: ANA (American Nurses Association)
-1899: ICN (International Council of Nurses)
-1908: National Association for Colored Graduate Nurses
-1916: African-American students admitted to the ANA
1898: Spanish-American War:
-Nursing had a major role in the care of sick and injured
-Widespread epidemic of typhoid fever
-Namahyoke Curtis, was first trained African-American nurse
-McGee and Robb set the stages for development of Permeant Army Nurse corps (1901) and Navy Nurse Corps (1908)
1917-1930: Influenza Epidemic and WWI
-beginning of the Great Depression
-National Committee on Nursing was formed
-Army school of nursing, led by Dean Annie Goodrich who