2.1 Overview of the themes
First of all, it is important to understand what is advertising and others concepts of it. Advertising is defined as a paid-for form of non-personal communication that is transmitted through a mass media, in order to reach a diversity of audiences (Dibb, Simkin, Pride & Ferrell 2006, p. 538). Moreover, advertising also can be defined as any paid form of non-personal promotion transmitted through a mass medium, means that audiences are far more likely to be interested in the subject matter of the advertising carried by their chosen medium, and is described to be part of the marketing mix under the promotional tools (Brassington & Pettitt 1997, p. 604; Wilmshurst & Mackay 2000, pp. 72-73). This discussion is further explained by Blythe (2006, p. 479) that advertising has been defined as a paid insertion of a message in a medium. Advertising should be seen as part of an integrated communication strategy and it can create awareness, and move people closer to a purchase: it can help in positioning brands, and it can help in informing people about product attributes (Kotler, Bowens & Makens 2006, p. 565).
2.2 Advertising industry
Advertising was first invented as early as in the first century. Historical evidence dated ages ago to the ruins of Pompeii which had shown early signs of advertising even before the twentieth century. Later on, advertisement has been changing along with the development of the advancement of technology, as human beings are becoming more creative and well educated (Wilmshurst & Mackay 2000, p.1-2). Throughout the eighteenth century, printing advertising such as the newspaper and afterward on magazines and posters as technology advance was the most common used of advertisement (Wilmshurst & Mackay 2000, pp. 4-5). Blythe (cited by Ehrenberg 1992, p. 480) also mentioned that there are two theories about advertising which the strong theory suggests that advertising is an influential force which can change attitudes and make a significant contribution to people’s knowledge and understanding, and the weak theory of advertising suggests that advertising can only ‘nudge’ people in the direction in which they are already moving, in the other words it reinforces rather than persuades.
On the other hand, advertising is no longer limiting itself via the printed materials as the medium of sending information mainly because of the advancing technology nowadays. As mentioned by Dibb, Simkin, Pride and Ferrell (2006, pg. 538), there are four different categories that are the broadcasting as the television, radio, direct mail, public transport vehicles, outdoor displays, cinema and the Internet (Gretzel, Yuan & Fersenmaier 2000) that are usually used by companies to advertise its products, services or brands nowadays. Moreover, the information technology (IT) is emerging since 90s and it has been highly handful for consumers to interact with the advertisements and thy (Gretzel, Yuan & Fersenmaier, 2000; Wilsmhurt & Mackay 2000, pg. 227).
In addition, Gretzel Yuan and Fersenmaier (2000) has indicated that the importance for companies to keep on updating all of the information that they want to send to the public, mainly due to the ease of accessible Internet. All this information must be made to order accordingly to the targeted market segments in order to obtain effectiveness in online advertising (Hoffman, Novak and Chatterjee, cited in Gretzel, Yuan & Fersenmaier 2000), whereby the effectiveness of it determines how many people in the advertising target will be exposed to the message (Dibb, Simkin, Pride & Ferrell 2006, p. 551). Therefore, companies are facing greater obstacles as the Web sites have become a common tool for the advertising industry. This highly advance media in current era of information allowed consumers to access information, interact, collaborate, communicate, as well as making transactions through the Internet whereas the traditional media couldn’t not