Essay on AdvertisingDeveloping advertising programsSetting advertising objectivesSetting the

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Developing advertising programs
Setting advertising objectives
Setting the advertising budget
Developing advertising strategy
Evaluating advertising campaigns

Setting advertising objectives
An advertising objective is a specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific time
Objectives are classified by primary purpose
Informative advertising is used when introducing a new product category; the objective is to build primary demand
Comparative advertising directly or indirectly compares the brand with one or more other brands
Persuasive advertising is important with increased competition to build selective demand
Reminder advertising is important with mature products to help maintain customer relationships and keep customers thinking about the product

Setting the advertising budget
Factors to consider when setting the budget
Product life-cycle stage
Market share
Product life-cycle stage
New products require larger budgets
Mature brands require lower budgets
Market share
Building or taking market share requires larger budgets
Markets with heavy competition or high advertising clutter require larger budgets
Undifferentiated brands require larger budgets

Developing the advertising strategy
Advertising strategy is the strategy by which the company accomplishes its advertising objectives. It consists of two major elements: creating the advertising message and selecting the advertising media.
Creating the advertising message
Advertisements need to break through the clutter:
Gain attention
Communicate well
Advertisements need to be better planned, more imaginative, more entertaining, and more rewarding to consumers
Madison & Vine—the intersection of Madison Avenue and Hollywood—represents the merging of advertising and entertainment
Steps in creating effective advertising messages
1. Message strategy: the general message that will be communicated to consumers - Identifies consumer benefits
2. Creative concept: the idea that will bring the message strategy to life and guide specific appeals to be used in an advertising campaign
Characteristics of the appeals include:
3. Message execution captures the target market’s attention and interest and can include the following execution styles:
Slice of life
Mood or image
Personality symbol
Technical expertise
Scientific evidence
Testimonial evidence or endorsement
Message execution also includes:
Positive or negative
Attention-getting words

Selecting advertising media
Major steps include:
1. Deciding on reach-frequency-impact
2. Selecting media vehicles
3. Deciding on media timing

Reach is a measure of the percentage of people in the target market who are exposed to the ad campaign during a given period of time
Frequency is a measure of how many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message
Impact is the qualitative value of a message exposure through a given medium
Selecting media vehicles involves decisions that present the media effectively and efficiently to the target customer and must consider the message’s:
Narrowcasting versus shotgun approaches
Narrowcasting focuses the message on selected market segments
Lower cost
Targets more effectively
Engages customers better
When selecting specific media vehicles, the planner must consider cost of the media as compared to its effectiveness by evaluating:
Audience quality
Audience engagement
Editorial quality
When deciding on media timing, the planner must consider:
Pattern of the advertising
Continuity—scheduling within a given period
Pulsing—scheduling unevenly within a given period

Evaluating advert effectiveness and return on advert investment
Types of evaluation include measuring:
Communication effects indicate whether the ad and media are communicating the ad message well and can be tested