2. Behaviorism- the theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns
3. Classical conditioning- a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
4. Cognitive map- a mental representation of one's physical environment
5. Conditioned response- an automatic response established by training to an ordinarily neutral stimulus.
6. Conditioned stimulus- the stimulus that is the occasion for a conditioned response
7. Reinforcement- The occurrence or experimental introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus
8. Escape learning- Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behaviour may change in form, frequency, or strength.
9. Extinction- When operant behavior that has been previously reinforced no longer produces reinforcing consequences the behavior gradually stops occurring
10. Learning- the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, study, or by being taught
11. Modeling- a form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual
12. Negative reinforce- involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus when a desired behavior occurs.
13. Observational learning- learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others.
14. Operant Conditioning- conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
15. Partial reinforcement- in operant conditioning, a contingency of reinforcement whereby a response is rewarded or punished only some of the time.
16. Positive reinforcer -occurs when a reward, sometimes called a reinforcer, is given for a specific desired behavior.
17. Primary reinforcer- positive reinforcing stimulus: a reinforcing stimulus that serves to increase the likelihood of the response that produces it
18. Punishment- any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.
19. Shaping- behavioral term that refers to gradually molding or training an organism to perform a specific response (behavior) by reinforcing any responses that are similar to the desired response.
20. Secondary reinforcer- reinforcing only after the organism has been conditioned to find it reinforcing.
21. Spontaneous reinforcer-
22. Unconditioned response- there are stimuli that can produce responses all by themselves and without any prior learning
23. Unconditioned stimulus- is any stimulus that can evoke a response without the organism going through any previous learning;
B. F. Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists. A radical behaviorist, he developed the theory of operant conditioning -- the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again. His principles are still incorporated within treatments of phobias, addictive behaviors, and in the enhancement of classroom performance (as well as in computer-based self-instruction). Skinner believed that the only scientific approach to psychology was one that studied behaviors, not internal (subjective) mental processes. He denied the existence of a mind as a thing separate from the body, but he did not deny the existence of thoughts, which he…