Essay on AFAS 340 Midterm study guide

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AFAS 340
Dr. Bowens

IV The Civil War (Harding)
Reasons why war was fought
Slavery, election of President Lincoln, state vs federal rights, economic & social differences; the South was based on a rural economy, while the North was based on a manufacturing economy and a more urban lifestyle.
President Abe Lincoln positions
Lincoln was an avowed opponent of the expansion of slavery but said he would not interfere with it where it existed
Emancipation proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as the country entered the third year of the Civil War. It declared that "all persons held as slaves… shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free"—but it applied only to states designated as being in rebellion, not to the slave-holding border states or to areas of the Confederacy that had already come under Union control. The careful planning of this document, with Lincoln releasing it at just the right moment in the war, ensured that it had a great positive impact on the Union efforts and redefined the purpose of the war.
Recruitment of Black soldiers
Recruitment was slow until black leaders such as Frederick Douglass encouraged black men to become soldiers to ensure eventual full citizenship. Black soldiers served in artillery and infantry and performed all noncombat support functions that sustain an army. Black women, who could not formally join the Army served as nurses, spies, and scouts, the most famous being Harriet Tubman, who scouted for the South Carolina Volunteers.
End of war reactions (North, South, African community)
North- victory meant that they were in control and they could facilitate all regulations; North’s vision is to abolish slavery
South- victory of the North was a rude awakening, their way of life is totally changed
Africans- it was a great milestone; more opportunities for them: to have control of their names, build family units, etc... These were all hopes and dreams, the real work was trying to implement these in reality
Issues-challenges facing the African community
Education was restricted because if they were educated they would resist from abiding by laws and such. Couldn’t vote, were discriminated against, couldn’t be citizens

V. Reconstruction (Harding , Bay)
Issues surrounding reconstruction
Physical safety safeguards- safety after leaving their owners
Political Safeguard- they have a voice -state constitution revised/rewritten -13th Amendment: abolished slavery -14th Amendment: gave Africans citizenship -15th Amendment: African men the right to vote -Civil Rights Act of 1775: further protection against discrimination guarantee of legislative protection
Land reform/Employment -“40 acres and a mule”-redistributing land among owners (what was promised to slaves after they were emancipating) -sharecropping: after slaves were freed, it was their way to have them work for them because they were in debt
Education- not only free education; integrated education systems
African community demands to participate in reconstruction efforts

Struggle ends / struggle begins
Struggle ends because slavery is over, but struggle begins because now they must implement everything in a world that does not want to accept them. They were able to legally vote under certain rules and people deterred them by making difficult laws, KKK, violence, literacy requirements, etc.
Black codes
Designed to circumscribe the blacks’ mobility, to restrict their economic opportunities, and to define them as a subordinate racial class. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.

VI. Smith (Segregation and Age of Jim Crow)
Reasons why reconstruction ended
Northerners were tired of a decade of Reconstruction efforts and had become less interested in the South with the rise of speculation and profit-making in the Gilded Age and then the