Topic: Chapter 3: Pages 88-104
What is a logical fallacy?
An error in reasoning, or common error in reasoning opposite of a factual error which is simply being wrong about the facts.
What is a deductive fallacy?
Sometimes called a formal fallacy is a deductive argument that has premises that are all true but they lead to a false conclusion, making it an invalid argument.
What is an inductive fallacy?
Sometimes known as an informal fallacy an inductive fallacy appears to be an inductive argument, but the premises do not provide enough support for the conclusion to be probable.
Name the labeled types of logical fallacies
Ad hominem, Non sequitur, Either/or and false dichotomy, Red herring, Ad populum, Ad Verecundium, Begging the question, Confusing cause and effect, Post Hoc, Straw man,
An argument discrediting a point of view through personal attacks is which type of logical fallacy?
What is Non Sequitur?
This type of fallacy is an argument that has conclusions that do not follow from the premises
What is an example of either/or false dichotomy?
Issues being presented as black or white. Example: “we either raise tuition or massively increase class size”
Arguments that avoid the issue and attempt to distract with a side issue are known as what?
What is Ad Populum?
Latin for “appeal to the people” arguments that appeal to popularity
What is an example of Ad Verecundium?
Arguments that appear to an irrelavent authority. Example: “If the president of Harvard feels it’s a good idea, then we should follow suit”
What does Begging the question mean?
It is a term for an argument in which a point of view is assumed true because the truth of the premise is assumed. Assuming the premise is true does not amount to evidence that it is true.
What is an example of Confusing cause and effect?
Confusing two events, implying that one caused the other, example being: “Obese people drink a lot of diet soda therefore diet soda causes obesity.
What is post hoc?
A fallacy that concludes that one event caused another just because one occurred after another
What occurs in a straw man fallacy?
A position of an opponent is exaggerated or weakened so that it is easier for the opponent to argue against it.
What is a slippery slope argument?
An argument that asserts that one event will inevitably lead to another