Essay about African American Notes

Submitted By saa4495
Words: 1235
Pages: 5

Africans & African Americans

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade


Slavery as a Racially-Based Economic System (Labor Force)
-Native Americans
Indentured Servants: DOESNT WORK unable to be racially identified
West Africans

West African to Americas (slaves labor force)
Americas to Europe (raw materials)
Europe to West Africa (finished goods guns & weapons)

West Africa
*Ghana, Mali, Songhay Empires,
*Trans-Saharan Trade
*Diversity: ethnicity & Religion

Transatlantic slave trade *FORCED MIGRATION *5 MAJOR STEPS 12.5 MILLION PEOPLE

March to the Coast
Europeans set up forts on West African coasts
Krumen: AFRICANS WHO AIDED IN THE CAPTURE AND TRANSPORT *Conditions- shackles, resistance, 25% dont make it

Slave Fort *Wait for ships *Weeks to months *2 types of holding pens- Barracoon: conditions where exposure to sun, dehydration, food distribution Dungeon- conditions where no air, no sunlight, sanitation

#3. Middle Passage 2 weeks to a month depending on the season The journey from the West African coast to the Caribbean Used canoes to get from coast to boat Packing- tight or loose - (give them room and not starve but less will perish only lose 10%) ALL ECONOMICS Conditions: disease (Dysentery- bad water, dehydration, loss of fluids), starvation (fed once a day and skips some people because there is not enough food), death (1 of 4), sharks, Atrophy (lose muscle mass from lack of use) *dances to prevent atrophy one hour/day

Slave Auction Caribbean- prepare for sale:
Man: greased up in pig fat to make muscles look strong, coal or ashes in hair to cover up grays, checked from head to toe
Woman: make sure they have child bearing abilities. if not, sold at lower price and work in fields

#5. Seasoning taken to a new home and meet three people *Master: the one who bought you *Overseer: supervise *Slave driver: usually black who has already lived on the plantation; middle man between new slaves

-breaking-will *punishment: whippings, hot box,
-new identity *given an english name *taught language

Slavery in The United States
Cotton Gin *1794 *Eli Whitney

Louisiana Purchase *1803 3. Transatlantic Slave Trade ends
 *Illegal 1808

Interstate Slave trade *tobacco upper south: -maryland, tennessee, virginia lower south: -alabama, mississippi, louisiana, florida

The Plantation - Statistics (by 1860)
5% of the white population owned slaves
3.95 million slaves = 12% of the population
86% of slaves lived and worked on a farm or plantation
11% were mulatto (mixed) *One Drop Rule: one drop of african blood= slave

The plantation Gang LABOR V. TASK LABOR
Gang Labor: cotton plantations in Deep South from sun-up to sun-down (most familiar)
Task Labor: rice plantations in Low-Country (GA and SC) “Free Time” may leave after task is completed

The plantation: Daily life


*slave codes
*floggings (whippings)

Resistance Active v. Passive
Active: running away, revolt, theft, poison, arson, breaking tools, suicide
Passive: Slow down, fake illness, play dumb,

“The SECtional CRISIS”
*abolitionism: 2% of the North
*Fugitive Slave Act of 1850- they would find slaves and turn them in for money
*Kansas-Nebraska Act: Kansas would be slave and Nebraska would be free
*Charles Sumner Incident: Mass. senator anti slavery talking about how slavery should be illegal. Preston Brooks was pissed about that and beat him with a cane
*John Brown’s Raid -Harper’s Ferry Virginia:
*Election of 1860- Abraham Lincoln; south secedes from USA; 11 states became Confederate States of America

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Bleeding Kansas
Charles Sumner Incident ohn Brown’s Raid
Election of 1860

Secession Crisis 1861

Civil War