Essay about African American Notes

Submitted By saa4495
Words: 1235
Pages: 5

Africans & African Americans

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Origins

Slavery as a Racially-Based Economic System (Labor Force)
-Native Americans
Indentured Servants: DOESNT WORK unable to be racially identified
West Africans

TRANSATLANTIC Slave Trade
West African to Americas (slaves labor force)
Americas to Europe (raw materials)
Europe to West Africa (finished goods guns & weapons)

West Africa
*Ghana, Mali, Songhay Empires,
*Trans-Saharan Trade
*Diversity: ethnicity & Religion

Transatlantic slave trade *FORCED MIGRATION *5 MAJOR STEPS 12.5 MILLION PEOPLE

March to the Coast
Europeans set up forts on West African coasts
Krumen: AFRICANS WHO AIDED IN THE CAPTURE AND TRANSPORT *Conditions- shackles, resistance, 25% dont make it

Slave Fort *Wait for ships *Weeks to months *2 types of holding pens- Barracoon: conditions where exposure to sun, dehydration, food distribution Dungeon- conditions where no air, no sunlight, sanitation

#3. Middle Passage 2 weeks to a month depending on the season The journey from the West African coast to the Caribbean Used canoes to get from coast to boat Packing- tight or loose - (give them room and not starve but less will perish only lose 10%) ALL ECONOMICS Conditions: disease (Dysentery- bad water, dehydration, loss of fluids), starvation (fed once a day and skips some people because there is not enough food), death (1 of 4), sharks, Atrophy (lose muscle mass from lack of use) *dances to prevent atrophy one hour/day

Slave Auction Caribbean- prepare for sale:
Man: greased up in pig fat to make muscles look strong, coal or ashes in hair to cover up grays, checked from head to toe
Woman: make sure they have child bearing abilities. if not, sold at lower price and work in fields

#5. Seasoning taken to a new home and meet three people *Master: the one who bought you *Overseer: supervise *Slave driver: usually black who has already lived on the plantation; middle man between new slaves

-breaking-will *punishment: whippings, hot box,
-new identity *given an english name *taught language

Slavery in The United States
Cotton Gin *1794 *Eli Whitney

Louisiana Purchase *1803 3. Transatlantic Slave Trade ends
 *Illegal 1808

Interstate Slave trade *tobacco upper south: -maryland, tennessee, virginia lower south: -alabama, mississippi, louisiana, florida

The Plantation - Statistics (by 1860)
5% of the white population owned slaves
3.95 million slaves = 12% of the population
86% of slaves lived and worked on a farm or plantation
11% were mulatto (mixed) *One Drop Rule: one drop of african blood= slave

The plantation Gang LABOR V. TASK LABOR
Gang Labor: cotton plantations in Deep South from sun-up to sun-down (most familiar)
Task Labor: rice plantations in Low-Country (GA and SC) “Free Time” may leave after task is completed

The plantation: Daily life
-Work
*field
*domestic

-Leisure
*food
*Worship
*family

-Brutality
*slave codes
*floggings (whippings)
*rape

Resistance Active v. Passive
Active: running away, revolt, theft, poison, arson, breaking tools, suicide
Passive: Slow down, fake illness, play dumb,

“The SECtional CRISIS”
*abolitionism: 2% of the North
*Fugitive Slave Act of 1850- they would find slaves and turn them in for money
*Kansas-Nebraska Act: Kansas would be slave and Nebraska would be free
*Charles Sumner Incident: Mass. senator anti slavery talking about how slavery should be illegal. Preston Brooks was pissed about that and beat him with a cane
*John Brown’s Raid -Harper’s Ferry Virginia:
*Election of 1860- Abraham Lincoln; south secedes from USA; 11 states became Confederate States of America

Abolitionism
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Bleeding Kansas
Charles Sumner Incident ohn Brown’s Raid
Election of 1860

Secession
Secession Crisis 1861

Civil War…