Age Of Jackson Research Paper

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Mr. Chlarson Shiyuan Yan History 120 Age of Jackson After John Adams won a contentious election in 1824, Martin Van Buren led the opposition to his administration in the Senate and helped form a coalition of Jeffersonian Republicans that backed Andrew Jackson in the 1828 election, which is called Democratic Party. Martin Van Buren coordinated a Democratic national campaign designed to appeal to a mass electorate. Van Buren oversaw the creation of a highly controlled party hierarchy structured like the Benevolent Empire, with local societies linked to state societies linked to the national organization. The spoil system is a practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. The Eaton Affair, known as Petticoat Affair, was an 1830-1831 U.S. Scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson’s cabinet and their wives. The period after 1815 is sometimes referred to as the “market revolution” in United States history. Calling the cluster of changes that occurred over the next several decades a “revolution” suggests theri eventual scope and magnitude: the decline of paternalistic employment arrangements and the growth of labor contracts and wage-dependency; the decline of relative self-sufficiency and the growing importance of longer-distance market exchange; and the decline of informal forms of transaction and the growing importance of formal contracts and book accounting. In 1790, emigre mechanic Samuel Slater had replicated the English water-powered carding and spinning machines in his mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. But Slater lacked the power loom, necessary to turn yarn into finished cloth. It took Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793, some aditional industrial sabtoge, and the devastating trade losses during the embargo and the war of 1812 itself to finally propel Americans to devise a power to loom and invest seriously in a domestic textile industry. “Lowell Girls” are the girls who worked on the mills in the 18th century industrial revolution. Most of these girls worked to help pay their brothers for education. The Bank war refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States during the Andrew administration. By 1833 Jackson was ready to move ahead his plan to disassemble the Second Bank of the United States. He asked Secretary of the Treasury Louis McLane to select other banks into which the federal government could move its deposits. McLane balked, worried that the selection would be compromised by politics and that the state banks would lose all fiscal restraint. Impatient, Jackson replaced McLane with William J. Duane, and then replaced Duane with Attorney General Roger Taney. On October 1,
1833, the federal government began to distribute its deposits to 22 state banks. By the

close of the year, the government deposits had been largely removerd. In July 1836 Jakson had the Treasury Department issue the Specie Circular, which directed land offices to accept only specie in payment for western lands. This effectively shut out actual settlers, who could not get together enough gold or silver for their purchases. President Andrew Jackson’s economic policies often are blamed for creating the conditions that caused the Panic of 1837. In 1829, Jackson, who mistrusted the Natinal bank and considered it unconstitutional, refused to renew the bank’s charter. He also withdrew all federal funds, depositing them instead in state and private banks. The 2nd Great Awakening was a protestant revival movenment during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led