AKHENATENS REIGN (points) Essay

Submitted By Bryan-Mak
Words: 8729
Pages: 35

3a. Title, Changes to Royal Image Over Time
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Son often inherited father’s offices
Changes in titles – reflected changes in religious policy
References to Amun in Year 1 titles – replaced by references to Aten in Year 5
Titles Obtained Before Coronation
First Prophet of Harakhte
Early title before coronation
Reflects education at Heliopolis (centre of worship of sun god Re) before ascension to throne
High Priest of Ptah
Title usually given to crown prince
May have inherited the title after Thutmose’ death
Title Changes During Reign
Came to throne (named Amenhotep IV) at about age 16, 17
Archaeological evidence – wall relief of vizier of the South shows Akhenaten wearing the Khepresh (blue crown of coronation) on a throne under a canopy with the goddess Maat
Year 1 – according to Demovic – “adopted his favourite epithet” – Beautiful Child of the Living Sun Disc
Reveals his relationship to the Aten
Year 6 – name change from ‘Amenhotep IV’ to ‘Akhenaten’
Coincided with intensity in his belief of Aten as one, only god
Amenhotep = ‘Amun is Satisfied’
Akhenaten = ‘He Who is Serviceable to the Aten’
King – living image of Aten on earth
Shortly after – decision made to found new city at Akhetaten

NAME

TITLE OF AMENHOTEP IV, YEAR 1

TITLE AFTER CHANGE TO AKHENATEN, YEAR 5
Horus name
Strong Bull, Tall of Feathers
Beloved of Aten
Golden Horus name
One who lifts up the crowns in Thebes
One who proclaims the Aten
Two Ladies name
Great of kingship in the temple of Karnak
Great of kingship in Akhetaten
Prenomen
Perfect are the manifestations of Re
Sole one of Re
Perfect are the manifestations of Re
Sole one of Re
Nomen
Amenhotep (Amun is satisfied)
God Ruler of Thebes
Akhenaten (useful to the Aten)

Changes to Royal Image
Year 1 – traditional representation of pharaoh (warrior-like)
Re-Harakhte (falcon-headed form) – has the name ‘Aten’
However, not shown in a cartouche (symbol of royal power)
Archaeological evidence – pylon at Karnak
Shows Akhenaten in a ‘smiting scene’ (striking with firm blow)
Year 2 – first changes
Archaeological evidence – talatat from pylon 2
Shows new form of the king – shown in front of Re-Harakhte whose name is in a cartouche
Year 3 – many changes to royal image
Four buildings erected for Aten at East Karnak
Archaeological evidence – large statues in the new Radical style show Akhenaten as Atum, the creator sun god, and Shu his son
Archaeological evidence – representation of Sed festival in temple
Shows celebration kiosks for all gods have the sun disc (Aten) in them instead of traditional gods
Nefertiti shown in Radical style worshipping Aten
Archaeological evidence – tomb of Ramose
Shows new form of king at Window of Appearances with Nefertiti
Year 4 / 5 – changes in titulary
Reflects change in religious policy
Decision made to found city at Akhetaten
Year 5 – setting up of new site of Akhetaten

3b. Early Building Program Including East Karnak
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According to Aldred – “This great undertaking [building program] was set in train almost as a national enterprise, with an energy that had hitherto been devoted to foreign campaigns.”
First official act after coronation – completion of decorations of Amenhotep III’s pylon at Temple of Amun, Karnak
Archaeological evidence – decorations of the pylon
Akhenaten depicted in traditional way
Traditional art style
Shown worshipping Re-Horakhty
Other building projects:
Construction of sun temples to Aten at Memphis, Heliopolis
Construction of sun temple to Aten in Nubia
Construction of four sun temples at East Karnak
Main themes in decorations of all sun temples:
Offering ritual
Sed festival, other royal activities
Sun Temples at East Karnak
Four sun temples for the Aten at East Karnak
Gempaaten
The Mansion of the Ben-ben Stone
Rud-menu
Teni-menu
Erected outside…