Environment – All living things and non-living things that exist on Earth.
Biodiversity – Number of different types of organisms in an area.
Sustainability – The ability of populations of organisms to contain to live, to interact, and to reproduce indefinitely in an environment.
System – A group of individual parts that interact as a whole to accomplish a task.
Components – Parts of a system.
Holistic approach – emphasizes an entire system.
Ecology – The study of how organisms interact with each other as well as with their environment in a system.
Ecosystem – An area where living thing and non-living things interact with each other.
Abiotic – Physical things, such as rocks, air, and water, or things that are measured, such as air temperature, hours of daylight, and salt concentration in sea water.
Biotic – Living, biotic factors are organisms such as animals, plants, mushrooms, bacteria, and algae.
Specie – Group of similar organisms in an ecosystem.
Population – Group of members of the same species that live in the same area.
Habitat – Area where an organism lives.
Community – Population of different species that lives and interact in an area.
Niche – All the interactions of a given species with its ecosystem.
Biome – Large geographical region that contains similar ecosystems.
Terrestrial – Land Scape
Biosphere – Parts of our planet, including water, land, and air, where life exists. Biomes combine to form biosphere.
Atmosphere – Layer of gases that surrounds Earth.
Hydrosphere – All the water on Earth
Lithosphere – Earth’s solid, outer layer
Nutrients – Substances that an organisms uses to build and repair the cell of its body.
Elements – pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.
Reservoir – Any place where matter accumulates.
Aquifer – Large underground lake
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria – Bacteria that converts nitrogen gas into ammonia
Nitrogen fixation – Converts of nitrogen gas into ammonia
Nitrifying bacteria – Bacteria that converts ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates.
Denitrifying bacteria – Bacteria that converts nitrates into nitrogen gas.
Chlorophyll – Substance in plants that absorb.
Cellular respiration – Process organisms use to obtain energy from glucose and other carbohydrates.
Photosynthesis – Process plants use to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
Producer – Organisms that carry out photosynthesis.
Consumer – Organisms that eat other organisms to obtain energy because they cannot produce their own food.
Primary consumer – Eats producers
Secondary consumers – Feeds on primary consumers
Tertiary consumers – Eats secondary consumers
Herbivores – Animals that eat plants only
Carnivores – Animals that eat meat only
Omnivores – Animals that eat both plants and animals
Scavengers – Animals that eat the reminder of death animals.
Detritivores – Consumers that feed on organic matter
Organic matter – Remains of the death organisms and animals waste
Predators – Animals that catch and feed on other live animals
Prey – Animals that the hunter catches
Decomposers – Group of special consumers, they break down organic matter and release the nutrients in the organic matter into the ecosystem.
Food chain – Way of showing feeding relationships among organisms.
Food web – Diagram that shows complex feeding relationships among organisms that eat many different things; interconnected food chain.
Energy Pyramid – Diagram that shows the amount of available energy producers and consumers contain as energy flows through an ecosystem.
Competition – The interaction between two or more organisms competing for the same resources in a given habitat.
Predation – When one organism eats anther organism to obtain food.
Symbiosis – A close interaction between two or more different species in which members of one species live in, on, or near members of another species.
Mutualism – Type of symbiosis