Amazon: Nootropic and Long Term Potentiation Essay

Submitted By zatchbellize
Words: 797
Pages: 4

Oxiracetam is known to affect cholinergic neurotransmission. It does so by influencing the utilization of acetylcholine in the cortex and hippocampus. This utilization causes an increase in release and uptake of acetylcholine. It is believed that this cholinergic mode of action is stronger and longer lasting than with piracetam.

It has been suggested that oxiracetam has stimulatory effects. These effects are not caused by monoaminergic systems like typical stimulants. It is believed that the very mild stimulatory effects are a result of cholinergic effects that promote alertness.

Oxiracetam also works on glutamatergic neurotransmission. It acts as an ampakine by binding to the AMPA glutamate receptors with a similar effectiveness to piracetam and aniracetam. It is believed that this binding may increase LTP (long term potentiation), which is a strong theory behind memory and learning formation.

Oxiracetam may have further memory benefits through protein kinase C (PKC) activation. It is believed that PKC activation can greatly attribute to learning and memory improvement. Studies show that it does influence the activity PKC in neurons which is attributed to its learning and memory effects


As a nootropic compound, oxiracetam is believed to influence areas of cognitive function. Memory and learning may both be improved by some degree with this racetam nootropic. Its effects on producing possible long term potentiation could have huge implications on learning and memory processes.

Generally, oxiracetam is known to be a focus and learning nootropic. It can bring some great benefits to focus by improving arousal and attention. This benefit may make it specifically synergistic with other nootropic compounds known to influence memory formation. For this reason, it may be taken alone or in a stack.


Oxiracetam has been considered to be fairly safe and well tolerated but side effects may still occur. Like with the other racetams, headache can be a common side effect which may be a cause of acetylcholine deficit in the cholinergic system. While there is no definite pattern here, some of the better acetylcholine supplements seem to reduce the risk of headache.

Irritability and depression is another common effect of oxiracetam. The depressive effects may correlate to “too much” acetylcholine supplementation however reducing dosage may not always solve this problem. Irritability is another side effect that may or may not exist with a lowered mood.

Oxiracetam is known to have slightly higher stimulation effects than the other racetams. These are related to the unique cholinergic effects. These effects do not usually cause nervousness but the likelihood may occur. Insomnia may also occur however studies have shown oxiractem to have less stimulating effects than caffeine. To reduce chance of insomnia symptoms, it should be avoided before bed.


Like piracetam and aniracetam, oxiracetam has been shown to be fairly safe over its long history. It has not shown to be toxic even in very high doses. Neurotoxicity and liver toxicity do not seem to be an issue. Tolerance may occur with this racetam however it is not considered to be a psychoactive substance and therefore potential for abuse is considered very unlikely. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid oxiracetam.

The only drug interaction known with