America’s Foreign Policy, Isolationist or Expansionist?
Foreign policy = the way a country deals with other countries
The United States should stay out of other countries problems or issues.
It is wrong to invade and control other countries
The United States gaining control over other lands and using them to gain an empire
American borders already stretched from Atlantic to Pacific.
America bought Alaska from Russia.
It was time to look overseas.
3 Causes of American Expansion
Desire for new markets and raw materials
US economy boomed with products to trade and needed resources
Companies built overseas factories.
Need new markets to prevent financial panics
Desire for naval bases and coaling stations
International competition for colonies would leave America behind.
American Security - 1890 funding approved for 3 battleships (US becomes 2 ocean navy).
International navy needs coaling ports.
Desire to bring Christianity, western style culture, and democracy to other people
US must expand to survive. Whites are superior race. Must spread superiority
All nations should be Christian. Bring values to “backward” people
US pioneer spirit looks towards foreign interests. Expand or explode
Looking Toward Asia – Opening Trade with Japan
Japan was isolated and unindustrialized
Matthew Perry brought 4 ships to Japan in 1853 to pressure Japan to open its ports to trade
Japan quickly became an industrial and military power
Looking Toward Asia – Taking Control of Hawaii
The port of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii was ideally located for coaling stations and bases for ships trading between the U.S. and Asia.
Many American planters bought land to plant sugar cane.
Americans wanted control of Hawaiian government.
Queen Liliuokalani resented American involvement.
Planters and U.S. Marines overthrew the Queen.
America annexed Hawaii in 1898
Looking Toward Asia – Relations with China
Open Door Policy
European countries divided China into areas in order to control trade.
U.S. and Great Britain asked Chinese leaders to make an Open Door Policy for trade
The Boxers didn’t want foreigners involved in China so they murdered foreigners and Christians.
The American forces stopped the rebellion.
Looking Toward Asia – The Great White Fleet
U.S. needed to protect American merchant ships traveling the world
President Teddy Roosevelt sent 16 battleships—The Great White Fleet—on a world tour.
People around the world could see the power of the U.S. Navy
The Cuban Revolt: America to the Rescue?
Cuba vs. Spain
Spanish oppressed the Cubans. Cubans rebel.
Spain sends General “Butcher” Weyler to crush the rebellion.
Cuban rebels placed in concentration camps. (Many died due to poor sanitation).
America Backs Cuba
Cuba was the underdog.
Whoever controls Cuba controls a future Panama Canal.
Hearst vs. Pulitzer. Each reported on the atrocities in Cuba.
Sensationalized news = more readers.
Hearst printed De Lome Letter
The U.S.S. Maine Explosion and War
The USS Main
US battleship sent to Cuba to protect and evacuate Americans
“Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain.”
Spanish investigation: Explosion was accidental
American investigation: Explosion caused by Spanish mine
McKinley and War
McKinley responds to American public and businesses pressure for war. The US declares war on Spain.
The Spanish-American War
Dewey’s surprise attack defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
American troops with Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo capture Manila
Rough Riders (supported by 2 black regiments) fight at San Juan and Kettle Hills.
Trapped by US naval blockade and US Army, Spain surrendered.
War only lasted 113 days.
America gained respect and prestige.
Closed the North-South divide (from Civil War).
US gained an empire that they couldn’t defend.
End of the War – The Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris officially ended