American Beginnings (Part 2) Essay

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American Beginnings (Part 2)
The Jeffersonian Era
Jefferson’s Presidency
1. Election of 1800
a. Adams vs. Jefferson
b. Jefferson won Adams by 8 electoral votes
c. Jefferson won election
d. 12th Amendment passed stating people to cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
2. Simplifying the Government
a. Jeffersonian Republicanism: Jefferson’s theory of government that said the people should control the government and simple government was the best
b. Reduced army and expenses
c. Tried to reduce Federalist positions in government
3. John Marshall and the Supreme Court
a. Marbury vs. Madison
i. Principle of judicial review established ii. John Marshall = Chief Justice iii. 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional
b. Judicial review: ability of supreme court to declare act of congress unconstitutional
4. Louisiana Purchase
a. Jefferson expanded US borders
b. Bought from France for $15 million
c. More than doubled the United States size
5. Lewis and Clark Expedition
a. 1803: appointed Lewis and Clark to explore
b. Took 2 years 4 months
c. Proved transcontinental travel possible
Madison and the War of 1812
James Madison became president in 1812
1. The Causes of the War
a. US focused on Britain instead of France because of impressment
b. Impressment: forcible seizure of men for military service
c. Didn’t buy goods from Britain but didn’t affect Britain
d. War Hawks: group of young congressmen from South who demanded war
e. Upset Native Americans and fought against the settlers
f. US called for war against Britain because Native Americans used arms from Britain
2. The Course of the War
a. Congress approved war in early June
b. US unprepared but Britain focused on Napoleon in Europe
c. US invaded Canada and failed
d. Tecumseh killed at Battle of Thames
e. Aug. 1814: British burned the Capitol
f. Jan. 8, 1815: Battle of New Orleans
i. General Andrew Jackson got troops to protect city ii. 5,400 Americans fought against 8,000 troops and won with few loses
3. The Consequences of the War
a. British and Americans signed peace agreement before Battle of New Orleans but didn’t get to generals before battle was fought
b. Treaty of Ghent signed Dec. 24, 1814 declared armistice
c. Led to the end of the Federalist party
d. Encouraged growth of American industries to replace products no longer available because of war
e. Confirmed US as a free and independent nation
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy
President James Monroe (1816) established foreign policy based on nationalism
1. Territory and Boundaries
a. 1817: Rush-Bagot Treaty
i. Agreement between John Q. Adams and Britain ii. Reduces Great Lakes fleets to only a few
b. Convention of 1818
i. Fixed Northern US border at 49th parallel west to Rocky Mountains
c. Reached compromise with Britain to jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 years
d. 1819: Adams-Onis Treaty
e. Adams convinced Don Luis de Onis (Spanish Minister) to transfer Florida to US
2. The Monroe Doctrine
a. Americans wanted to reduce European power in America
b. Monroe Doctrine: a policy of US opposition to any European interference in te affairs of the Western Hemisphere, announced by President Monroe
c. Monroe Doctrine created in 1823- important basis for future American policy
d. Speech ignored because US had no armed forces to support doctrine
The Age of Jackson
Regional Economies Create Differences
North became industrialized while South became agricultural
1. Early Industry in the United States
a. Industries began in North
b. Lowered cost of producing goods and increase markets and profits
c. Started Industrial Revolution
d. 1793: British immigrant, Samuel Slater, brought textile over to Rhode Island
2. Two Agricultural Systems Develop
a. Farmers discovered how to specialize in one or two crops to make mass production
b. Eli Whitney created the cotton…