In the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, opposed the expansion of slavery into United States' territories. Lincoln won, but before his inauguration on March 4, 1861, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's inaugural address declared his administration would not initiate civil war. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy. A peace conference failed to find a compromise, and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene; none did and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, a key fort held by Union troops in South Carolina. Lincoln called for each state to provide troops to retake the fort; consequently, four more slave states joined the Confederacy, bringing their total to eleven. The Union soon controlled the border states and established a naval blockade that crippled the southern economy. The Eastern Theater was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland (a Union state) ended with Confederate retreat at the Battle of Antietam, dissuading British intervention. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, and the Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg. Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. In the Western Theater, William T. Sherman drove east to
S. Grant’s effect on the American civil war.
Ulysses S. Grant was a simple man who changed the face of the earth. His ideals and theories on war have changed the way we look at war. His strategies and tactics changed the way in which wars were fought. Over the short course of his life, Ulysses S. Grant changed war. His tactics have since been used in all the great wars from WWI onwards.
The term “civil war” may seem oxymoronic but it actually is, by definition, a war between citizens of the same…
States vs. Federal Rights:
Since the time of the Revolution, two camps emerged: those arguing for greater states rights and those arguing that the federal government needed to have more control. The first organized government in the US after the American Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. The thirteen states formed a loose confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weaknesses of the Articles caused the leaders of the time to come together…
History Chapter 21 Outline
I. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War”
A. Northern newspapers at first had expectations of quick victory, “On to Richmond!”
B. A Union army is of some 30 men is drilled near Washington in the supper of 1861 and it was ill prepared for battle, but the press and the public clamored for action.
a. Lincoln concluded that an attack on a small Confederate force at Bull Run some thirty miles southwest of Washington might be worth a try. If successful it…
causes of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln’s leadership
Abraham Lincoln suffered extraordinary pressures during the civil war. He carries on despite generals who weren’t ready to fight, assassinations threats, huge loss of life on the battle fields, and opposition from groups such as the copperheads. However, Lincoln remained brave and ready for anything. He didn’t give in to the pressure and end the war early. He kept fighting until the enemy was defeated.
Throughout the civil war Abraham Lincoln…
William Lloyd Garrison- was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
Clement L. Vallandigham- "publicly denounced the ‘wicked and cruel' war by which ‘King Lincoln' was ‘crushing out liberty…
enormous industrial advantage as well. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile.
6.Election of 1864-
Define: Lincoln vs. McClellan
Significance: Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins.
7.Northern group most dangerous to the union cause-
Identify: Northern Peace Democrats.
8.Union national banking system-
Define: It was the 1st national banking system since…
become a state as well (a free state)
c. also divided the remaining area of the Louisiana Purchase at 36 30’ north
latitude, above line except Missouri no slavery, below line slavery is ok.
B. Manifest Destiny
a. belief that it was God’s plan that Americans to control the entire continent
b. based on white supremacy
c. settlers more motivated by economic benefit
C. “FiftyFour Forty or Fight”
a. negotiating the oregon border between Great Britain and US
b. 1818 both agreed on joint occupation of the Oregon Country…
This article is about the American president. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation).
An iconic black and white photograph of a bearded Abraham Lincoln showing his head and shoulders.
An 1863 daguerreotype of Lincoln, at the age of 54.
16th President of the United States
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin (1861–1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865)
Preceded by James Buchanan
Succeeded by Andrew Johnson
Member of the U.S. House of…
“Why is the Civil War Considered as the First Modern War” Essay
The American Civil War or quite simply the Civil War as it is known to many Americans, is regarded as America’s bloodiest war, claiming more lives than any other war in American history. It is a war that shook the constitutions of America by its roots and helped shape America into the nation it is today. Many people have questions they would like answered about the war, for instance, why was it considered as the first…
petition to King George III
Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775) Beginning of the Revolutionary War
British Redcoats sent to go seize the colonists' arms and generals
Paul Revere and other horsemen went from Boston to warn of the impending attack
Series of small skirmishes, British were attacked on the road all the way back to Boston
By the end of the day, 273 British Casualties, less than 100 American casualties
Battle of Saratoga (1777) Most important battle of the Revolution
Would be the key…