Learn the Terms
Affirmative action, p.155 Policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvantaged group.
Black Codes, p. 122 Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), p.128 U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the Fourteenth amendment’s guarantee of equal protection
Civil rights, p. 121 The government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals.
Civil Rights Act of 1965, p. 132 Wide-ranging legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Civil Rights Cases (1883), p. 124 Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private, not state, discrimination.
Equal Pay Act of 1963, p. 125 Legislation that requires employers to pay men and women equal pay for equal work.
Equal protection clause, p. 123 Section of the Fourteenth Amendment that guarantees all citizens receive “equal protection of the laws.”
Equal Rights Amendment, p. 133 Proposed amendment to the Constitution that states “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.”
Fifteenth Amendment, p. 125 One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves.
Fourteenth Amendment, p. 123 One of the three Ciial War Amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all U.S. citizens
Grandfather clause, p. 125 133Voter qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those citizens whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction to vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test.
Jim Crow laws, p. 125 Laws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public schools, theaters, hotels, and other public accommodations.
Nineteenth Amendment, p. 126 amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed women the right to vote.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), p. 125 Supreme Court case that challenged a Louisiana statute requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites. The Court found that separate-but-equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Poll tax, p. 124 A tax levied in many southern states and localities that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a ballot.
Strict scrutiny, p. 133 A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine that constitutional validity of a challenged practice.
Suffrage movement, p. 126 The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920.
Suspect classification, p. 133 Category of class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court.
Thirteenth Amendment, p. 122 One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically bans slavery in the United States
Title IX, p. 136 Provision of the Education Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions that receive federal funds from discriminating against female students.
a. Referring to the text, what are civil rights? Begin with “civil rights are the …” end with “orientation” the government protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on categories such as race, sex, national origin, age, religion, or sexual orientation.
b. What “major crisis occurred in 1820, when Missouri applied for admission