2. Nativism is negative feelings/attitudes against catholic immigrants nost visible during the early 1830’s to 1850’s. It rose as the amount of catholic immigrants to the Americas increased, which in turn instilled fear of change to the predominantly Protestant way of social and political living and ideas (Foner p. A.47 + p. 337)
3. When talking about land and freedom Foner describes the land m the West as being more readily available, “the west still held out the chance to achieve economic independence, the social condition of freedom.” Thus open land equal open freedom. (Foner p. 339)
4. Emerson describes the freedom of the “single individual” as simply being free as a person, to take control. The freedom one has to be brave, to choose what you want to do. To no longer be controlled by the narrow mindedness of Europe. The single individual has freedom to be and do what you want.
5. The biggest transportation improvements were the new roads, the steamboats, canals, and railroads. Water transportation was the most efficient way to transport goods and with the help of steamboats cut the cost of commerce. The railroad opened up the opportunity for more expansion, coal mining, and iron manufacturing. The vast migration that occurred during this time wouldn’t have been possible without these improvements. The market economy was boosted in every way possible. (Foner p. 321-324)
6. The market economy increased the nation’s sectional differences by making migration possible. The expansion to the west diversified the nation. There were cotton Kingdom States, farmer rich communities, areas with heavy slavery and some with very minimal slavery. The East, West, North and South all had their own characteristics. (Foner p.325-327)
7. The growth of the Cotton Kingdom benefited planters because it gave them more profit since the cotton gin made the process quicker. It benefited slave owners because it increased the need for slave workers and expanded the slave trade again. That’s when African-Americans were robbed of all their liberties even though they didn’t have many to begin with. Poorer souther farmers were left with the short end of the stick when wealthy farmers bought the most fertile land, leaving them less productive land. (Foner p. 327)
8. The biggest change in law was the increased support for corporations. Laws gave corporations special privileges and powers that individual, smaller companies didn’t have. Simply because they were such a central part of the new market economy.
9. Women or “Mill Girls” did not have this defined freedom. They were under constant supervision by their employers having no “freedom” of their own. (Foner page 333). Women did not have all the opportunities a white man did. They were controlled by men in work, wages, and anything they did. (Foner, page 350)