Introduction to Physiological Principles & Cell Physiology
1. Define physiology.
2. Discuss the physics and chemistry of physiology.
3. Define homeostasis
4. Distinguish between regulators and conformers and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both.
5. Discuss negative and positive feedback
6. Know the biological levels of organization.
7. Discuss how evolutionary processes influence physiological processes.
8. Discuss physiologic phenotypes.
9. Identify the different categories of energy.
Chemistry, Biochemistry and Cell Physiology
1. Discuss the different types of energy.
2. Describe the basic properties of water.
3. Discuss the importance of maintaining proper pH in biological systems.
4. Discuss the main physiological buffer systems.
5. Discuss the different types of chemical bonds.
6. Explain the characteristics and role of enzymes.
7. Define the meaning and significance of "high-energy compounds" in biochemical pathways.
8. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions.
9. Define surface tension.
10. Define osmotic pressure.
11. Identify the various parts of a cell and provide examples of the role of the various components.
12. Discuss protein synthesis.
13. Discuss protein structure.
1. Discuss the characteristics of the mammalian cell membrane, including reference to the chemical properties of the plasma membrane.
2. Explain the need for membrane transport systems.
3. Discuss the different types of diffusion.
4. Identify the necessary factors that are needed in order for passive diffusion to occur.
5. Discuss the factors that influence the diffusion rate.
6. Discuss the main difference between primary active transport and secondary active transport. Provide examples of each type.
7. Discuss the different types of vesicular transport.
8. Discuss the properties of the GLUTs.
9. Discuss how the sodium-potassium ATPase pump functions to maintain sodium and potassium gradients.
10. Explain the importance of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump.
1. Discuss mechanisms of cell communication.
2. Define signal transduction.
3. Discuss the different types of cellular responses associated with a ligand binding its receptor on the target tissue.
4. Define second messenger system.
5. Discuss the role of second messenger systems.
6. Discuss locations of receptors associated with the target tissue.
7. Relate a hormone’s chemical structure to the location of its receptors and the type of signal transduction.
8. Discuss the difference between up-regulation and down-regulation
9. Identify pathologies associated with impaired signal transduction.
Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology
1. Contrast the term endocrine, paracrine, autocrine.
2. Define the terms hormone, target cell, and receptor.
3. Discuss the properties of peptide, steroid, and amine hormones.
4. Discuss feedback mechanisms that control hormone secretion.
5. Explain the factors that control plasma hormone concentrations.
6. Discuss the physiologic and anatomic relationships between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary.
7. Identify the different pathways used for hypothalamic-pituitary interactions.
8. Identify the mechanisms that control the release of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone [ADH; arginine vasopressin (AVP)].
9. Discuss the response of the target tissues to ADH and oxytocin.
10. Identify the steps involved in thyroid hormone synthesis.
11. Discuss regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis, including feedback via the HPA.
12. Describe the cellular responses to thyroid hormone.
13. Describe the etiology and consequences of excess and deficiency of thyroid hormone.
14. Discuss possible treatment for thyroid