Essay about An Introduction to Hydrophonics and Controlled Environment Agriculture

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Introduction to Hydroponics and Controlled Environment Agriculture

by Patricia A. Rorabaugh, Ph.D. University of Arizona Controlled Environment Agriculture Center 1951 E. Roger Road Tucson, AZ 85719 Revised December, 2012

CHAPTER 1: Controlled Environment Agriculture and Hydroponics: Past, Present and Future The Plant How to grow greenhouse crops Plant Protection: Insects and Diseases Basic Principals of Hydroponics Transplant Production Pollination, Fertilization and Bee Management Fruit Harvesting, Grading and Storage Plant Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders Fertigation Systems and Nutrient Solutions Greenhouse Site Selection Greenhouse Structures Greenhouse Control Systems Greenhouse Energy and Resource
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*1597 – France: first accounts of the reinvention of mulches (mats, cloth, straw, etc.) to protect plants in beds during periods of cold (but probably used prior to this). *1600’s – Widespread use of glass greenhouses of different designs (including those with removable tops for Summer) to “force” bulbs and to grow flowers, citrus and other trees and shrubs in England, France, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, Spain and China. *1600’s – Heating systems “rediscovered”: steam/hot water, “bark” stoves (moist heat), manure as a heat source and charcoal heaters (though, high sulfur coal was found to be phytotoxic). Greenhouses were built with flues in the floor for below-ground heating. Note: Since greenhouses started in northern Europe, heating was emphasized. *1700’s – Greenhouse designs continue to improve in Europe and then in the USA, including multi-span structures. The first greenhouses with glass on all sides were built in Boston (1720, later in Chicago). Growers in The Netherlands found that glass cleaning along with greenhouse orientation (perpendicular to radiation